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THE MOPLAH REBELLION, 1921 



Dhananjayarao Gadgil Library 
BY 



GIPE-PUNE-000822 
Diwan Bahadur C. Gopalan Naln, 

Retired Deputy Collector, ' 
Calicut, Malabar. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



First Edition— One thousand. 



CALICUT: 

PRINTED AT THE NORMAN PRINTING BUREAU. 
1923 

Price Rs. 2 per copy. 



F3 



(p. .a. .eg 



" Who can deny that the British Government 
in India leaves much to be desired? It has many 
defects and short -comings needing amendments and 
corrections. In spite of all their short-comings, I 
| make bold to challenge any honest man to lay his J 
hand on his heart and declare, calling Cod Almighty 
to witness, that we had, during historic times, any 
Government or a system of Government, which as- 
sured to the people anything approximating the 
security of life and property that we have enjoyed 
» during the last century and a half, the general sense > 
» of personal freedom and liberty we now claim as 

our own, and the even-handed justice meted out to 
us." 

K. V. NARAIS'A MENON. 



IL. 



-ioi- 



f73» 0C30 " 0C il 

A TRIBUTE 

TO 

Capt. P. McEnroy. d. s. o., m. c. 

For the conspicuous gallantry displayed by him 
at Pookkottur on 26th August 1921, on his march to 
relieve Malappuram, when he, with his small force not 
exceeding 125 men consisting of the Leinsters and the 
Special Police fought a pitched battle lasting five 
hours with a rebel horde of about 4,000 Moplah fana- 
tics and routed them, inflicting 400 casualties among 
them. His success saved a difficult situation during 
the first week of the Moplah rebellion when Govern- 
ment forces were not available in sufficient numbers to 
check the rebellion, and also saved the Ernad Hindus 
from wholesale conversion to Moslem faith. On be- 
half of myself and my Hindu countrymen of Malabar, 
I offer to the HERO ofPOOKKOTUR and his small 
force our grateful thanks for their services on that 
memorable day. 

Calicut, 1st May, 1923. 

C. GOP ALAN NAIR. 

Ban _^ocao oc5 



CONTENTS. 





Pr-^ace. 


Page. 


I. 


The Moplah Rebellion. 


1 


II. 


Military Operations. 


32 


III. 


Martial law. 


60 


IV. 


Malabar Police. 


68 


V. 


Atrocities. 


73 


VI. 


Khilafat Kings and Governors. 


76 


VII. 


Rebel Destructiveness. 


81 


VIII. 


Train Tragedy. 


90 


IX. 


Relief Measures. 


94 


X. 


Government Loans 


109 


XI. 


Reconversion. 


116 


XII. 


Hindu-Moslem Unity. 


121 




Conclusion. 


124 



APPENDICES. 



I. 

II. 

III. 



IV. 
V. 



Past Moplah Outrages. 
Mr. Gandhi's Visit to Calicut. 
Proceedings of the District Ma- 
gistrate of Malabar, Calicut, 
dated 5th February, 1921. 

Mr. Yakub Hassan's Arrival. ... 

Discussion in the Legislative 
Council, Madras on 18th Fe- 
bruary, 1921 Regarding the 
arrest of Mr. Yakub Hassan 
and others at calicut. 



1 
17 



23 
25 



30 



VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

a. 



c. 



d. 



XI. 



Prohibitory Order, 8th May, 1921 

The Pookkotur Incident. 

The Malabar Police, 

Atrocities. 

Speeches. 

The Moplah Rebellion, by H 

The Viceroy. 

Moplah Fanaticism, by Sir W 

Vincent. 

Malabar by H. E. The Governor 

of Madras. 
The Moplah Rebellion by Mr. 
M. K. Gandhi. 

Details of suspension and fine in 
Continuation of Chapter III. ... 



1921 


. 34 


. . . 


36 


• > • 


38 


... 


52 


... 


73 


. E. 

T 





88 



HI 

Florican, Calicut, 20 — 2—23.' 

Dear Mr. Gopalan Nair, 

I have read your history of the Moplah Rebellion 
with great interest. I must congratulate you upon your 
industry in bringing together a great mass of material 
not easily accessible and upon the completeness and fair- 
ness with which you have set down the facts. I do not 
think that without access to official records which are 
still confidential you could have performed your task 
more satisfactorily. 

Yours Sincerely, 
(Sd.) K. H. ELLIS. 



were sometimes issued on the day the events took place, 
oftentimes on the next day, and in some instances on the 
third day, so that I was not able, in spite of all my at- 
temps, to fix the exact date of the occurrences in some 
cases. On pages 39 to 57 the communiques have 
been copied as they are, and the date at the beginning 
of each para generally represents the date of the com- 
muniques except where the dates of occurrence have been 
specifically mentioned. This explanation has become 
necessary in view of the impossibility to secure correct 
information until the official history is published. The 
facts have been correctly stated as published. 

I have been able to secure photos illustrating dif- 
ferent aspects of the rebellion, but must express my great 
disappointment that, in spite of all attempts, I was not 
able to secure a photo of Capt. McEnroy, the hero of 
Pookkotur. 

I have to thank the Norman Printing Bureau for 
the printing and the get up of the book. 

With these remarks, I place the book before the 
public and append hereto the opinion [of R. H. Ellis, 
Esq., I. C. s., who was the Collector and District 
Magistrate of Malabar from 27th January 1922 to 12th 
December 22. 

Calicut, | C. GOPALAN NAIR. 

1st May 1923) 



PREFACE. 



As a pensioner, with ample leisure, at my disposal, I 
undertook the task of compiling the news, published from 
time to time in the newspapers regarding the Moplah 
rebellion which broke out at Tirurangadi on 20th August 
1921, and with great diffidence, I venture to place before 
The public the account written by me, in the ho|>e that 
this attempt at history-writing will be appreciated by the 
public. 

The book has no pretensions to originality ; it is 
simply a collection of materials arranged under different 
heads, from which the course of events during the period 
of insurrection might be followed. 

/ It has no pretensions to be a history ; it is simply a 
chronicle of events, a sketchy view based on the articles 
and news in the Madras Mail and the West Coast Spect- 
ator, to both of whom my acknowledgments are due. I 
am also indebted to the West Coast Reformer for Mr. 
Gandhi's Speech on 18th August 1920. 

To a non-official, as I am at present, without access 
to official records, the chapter on ' military operations ' 
presented great difficulty. No information was available 
except the very concise Press Communiques, giving in- 
formation, but no details, of engagements between the 
Government Forces and the rebels. These communiques 




REFUGEES MIDDLE CLASS FAMJLIES. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE MOPLAH REBELLION. 



MALABAR. 



This District consists of the following Taluks: — 
1. Chirakkal; 2. Kottayam; 3. Kurumbrartad ; 4. 
Wynad; 5. Calicut; 6. Ernad; 7. Walluvanad; 8. 
Ponnani ; 9. Palghat and 10. British Cochin. The 
boundaries are north, South Kanara ; east, Coorg, Mysore, 
Nilgris and Coimbatore ; south, the Cochin State ; and 
west, the Arabian Sea. 

Malabar extends from north to south along the coast, 
a distance of about 150 miles, and lies between N. Lat. 
10° 15' and 12° 18' and E. Long. 75° 14* and 76° 56', the 
total area being 5,785 sq. miles. 

Martial Law was proclaimed in Ernad, Walluvanad, 
Ponani, Calicut, Kurumbranad and Wynad. Distur- 
bances actually took place in the first four Taluks. 

Ernad has an area of 966 sq. miles, contains 94 
amsoms* and has a population of 401,101 — Mussalmans 
237,402, Hindus 163,328 and Christians 371. It is a 
tract made up of hills, clothed with forest, the eastern 
portion including the valley of Nilambur which produces 

*Amaom«Vill»g«. 



teak and other timbers. There were disturbances in 
every amsom of the Taluk. 

Calicut has an. area of 379 sq. miles and a popula- 
tion of 290,739 persons, 196,435 being Hindus, 88,393 
.^Jis^in^isjajicO^JiCh^tiansJ c p{stur))anc$s were 
confined to 23 of the 65 amsoms.in the Taluk. 

Walluvanad has^an, ajea 'o^ j880 sq. miles, with a 
population of 394,517, Hindus being 259,979, Mussal- 
mans, 13^,91,9, and, Christians 619. It lies along ^he foot 
pf thp ^esjern, GJiats. Out of the 118 amsoms pf this 
.talujt,, 68 were absorbed in the r,ebe] area. 

• Ponani has an, acea of 426 sq. miles anda population 
of 533^25^2— Hindus 281,155, Mussalroans 229,0,16 and 
Christians 23,081. Out of the 121 amspms that consti- 
tute this Taluk, 35 were absorbed in the r,ebel area. 

THE LEGEND OF KEEAL& 
Parasurama, an incarnation of Vishnu, peopled this 
country, known as Kerala, with Brahmins from Arya 
Bhumi in the north and settled them in 64 villages along 
the coast. 'These Brahmins are the Nambudiris who for 
a time r carried on the administration of the country by a 
Council of four members elected by the 64 villages. 
They found \t impossible to maintain the Government, 
and brought Military Governors, known as PerumaJ^, 
from the adjoining countries, each, Goyernpr : being. ar>- 
pointed for ; a perjpd of twelve years, A succession of 
Governors ceigne4 in Kerala, and, the lasfc incumbent, 
known as Cheraman Perumal, reigned for 36 years. 



THE FIRST C0NYER8I0N 

Muhamrnadans had gained a footitig in Malabar for 
commercial purpbses, and Che'raman Perumal Was 
persuaded by tbein to embrace the Moslem faith. 

" The lofty monarch joins the faithful train 

And vows at fair Medina's shrine to close 

His life's mild eve in prayer and sweet repose." 

Camden's iMsiad. 

The period is. uncertain, but according to the 
Malabar Manual* it was in Augusf. '825 A.. E>. that 
Cheraman sailed for Mecoa after dividing 'his country 
•among his sub-ordinate chieftains. He asked Arab 
missionaries to proceed to Malabar and propagate the 
Moslem faith : a party of 15, with, Maliitlbn-Dinar as 
their leader, started on this mission, landed at Cranga- 
nore, and obtaining permission from £h e Rulers pf the 
country, built ten mosques at (Jifferent, stations in 
Malabar and South Canara and commenced a career of 
proselytism, which resulted in the creation of the race 
known as Moplahs. 

FORCIBLE CONVERSION 

The race progressed rapidly in numbers ffdm natural 
causes, as also ffOm conversions and when Sheik-Ibn- 
Bdtuta of Tahgiers visited iMalabar (1342--47>AJD.) he 
found 'that Moslem merchants had >houseS in im'bst' pasts 
of the district and Were greatly respectedi Fc*eible 
conversions Were than evlddnlily unknown: Hindusufere 
■^crft-erfill : tnen. 'Further, MuhEltrirhadarjism. 'w,as'-'then 



•4 

tolerated and under certain "circumstances even encour- 
aged. " The Zamorin of Calicut, who was one of the 
chief patrons of Arab trade, definitely encouraged con- 
version in order to man the Arab Ships on which he 
depended for his aggrandizement and he decreed that, 
in every family of fishermen, one or more of the male 
members should be brought up as a Muhammadan." 
(District Gazetteer). Among the depressed classes of 
Malabar, there was no real disinclination to embrace the 
Moslem faith, for the honour of Islam neutralised all 
their former bad qualities and raised them several places 
socially. These were voluntary conversions. 

It was during the Mysorean conquest that forcible 
conversions were initiated under the orders of Tippu. 
In March, 1789, a Mysorean force of 19,000 men, with 
46 field-pieces, surrounded 2,000 Nayars with their 
families in an old fort at Kuttipuram, the head-quarters 
of the Radathanad Raja's family which the besieged 
defended for several days. " At last, finding it unten- 
able, they submitted to Tippu's terms which were a 
voluntary profession of the Muhammadan faith or a 
forcible conversion with deportation from their native 
land.t -The unhappy captives gave a forced assent, and 
on the next day, the rite of circumcision was performed 
on all the males, every individual of both sexes being 
compelled to close the ceremony by eating beef. This 
achievement was held out as an example to the other deta- 
. chments of the army. Christian and Pagan women were 
forcibly married to Muhammadans." (Malabar Manual); 



Tippu had made repeated vows to honour the whole 
of the people ot Malabar with Islam and would have 
carried out the vow, and Malabar would have been a 
Moslem country, but for the treaty dated 18th March, 
1792, under which Tippu was forced to yield Malabar to 
the East India Company. 

MOPLAH OUTRAGES 

Numerous Hindus had taken refuge in Travancore 
and now came back to enjoy their own again; troubles 
arose in course of time and, from the records available, 
we find that for some reason or for no reason, Moplahs in 
Ernad and Walluvanad now and then started on a career 
of Hal llakam (religious frenzy) and killed Hindus, de- 
secrated temples and also forcibly converted the people to 
the Moslem faith. These outrages never lasted long, and 
the Moplahs involved in the affair were shot down by the 
troops or sent out of the country. (Appendix 1.) 

Mr. T. L. Strange was appointed as Special Com- 
missioner in Malabar to enquire into the causes of these 
outrages, and his report (1852) is a clear exposition of 
the subject. 

" It is apparent that in no instance can any outbreak 
or threat of outbreak that has risen be attributed to the 
oppression of tenants by landlords. • A great clamour is 
now raised on this regard, prominently in the southern 
taluks visited by me, the Moplah population seeking to 
throw the blame of these outbreaks upon the landlords by 
thus charging them with being the cause thereof. I have 



I 

given the subject evety attention, and am convinced that 
though instances may and do arise of individual hardship 
to a tenant, the general character of the dealings of the 
Hindu landlords towards their tenantry, whether MopTah 
or Hindu, is mild, equitable and forbearing. I am further 
convinced that where stringent trieasu'r6s are taken, the 
conduct of the tenants 4s in the vast majority of cases, the 
cause thereof and that, the Moplah tenantry, especially of 
the Taluks in South Malabar, where the outbreaks have 
bden so common, are very prone to evade their obligations 
and to resort to false and litigious pleas." 

He added, " A feature that has been manifestly corh- 
fiion 16 'the whole of these afi&irs is that they have been 
one arid all marked by the most decided fanaticism, and 
'thi3, fliere can b6 no "doubt, has furnished t!he true incen- 
tive to them." 

" The Hindus, in the parts where 'the outbreaks have 
'been most frequent, stand in snch fear of the ^f oplahs as 
hibstly h6t to dare to press for their rig'hts against them, 
arid there is many a Moplah tenant who does not pay his 
rent, and cannot, so imminent are the risks, be evicted. 
Other injuries are also put up with, uncomplained of." 
{Malabar Manual). 

vo'PLiirBKBiLitoft, n*i 

f The present rebellion which openly broke out on 20th 

. August, 1921, at Tirurangadi, long one of the most fertile 

breeding grounds of active fanaticism, was entirely differ- 

ent from the ordinary Moplah outrages. The causes have 



been briefly described by the three eminent judges presid- 
ing over the Spscia,l Tribunal, Calicut, in the following 
terms : — 

"■For t,he lftst hundred, years at least, the Moplah 
community has been disgraced from time to time by mur- 
derous outrages, as appears from the district Gazetteer. 
In the past, they have been due to fanaticism. They 
generally blazed out in the Ernad, Taluk, where the 
Moplahs were for the most part proselytes drawn from the 
dregs of the Hindu population. These men were miser- 
ably poor and hopelessly ignorant, and their untutored 
minds, were particularly susceptible to the inflammatory 
teaching that Paradise was to be gained by killing Kaffirs, 
and the servants of Kaffirs. They would go out on the 
war-path, killing Hindus, no matter whom, and would be 
joined by other fanatics, and then seek death in hand-to- 
hand conflict with the troops. In some cases, they may 
have been inspired by hatrea of a particular land-lord, but 
no grievance seems to have been really ' necessary to start 
them on their wild, careers. The Moplahs of Ernad and 
Walluvana,d Taluks have been described ^s a barbarous 
and a savage race, and, unhappily, the description seems 
appropriate at the present day. 

But it was not mere fanaticism, it was not agrarian 
trouble, it was not destitution, tha,t worked on the minds 
of AJi ^lusaliar and his followers. The evidence conclu- 
sively shows that it was the influence of the Khilafat and 
Non-co-operation movements that drove them to thejr 

crime. It ia (his which distinguishes the present from all 

■ '.-...• r '..VU.'-. l o. ;,■■:•. ■;<■:. i'.-/ T*...: .w .V;'.:. *-c. '0 f. .me.; 



8 

previous outbreaks. Their intention was, absurd though 
it may seem, to subvert the British Government and to 
substitute a Khilafat Government by force of arms." 
(Judgement in Case No. 7 of 1921 on the file of the Special 
Tribunal, Calicut.) 

The Khilafat movement was introduced into this 
happy and peaceful district of Malabar on 28th April, 1920, 
by a Resolution at the Malabar District Conference, held 
at Manjeri, the head-quarters of Ernad Taluk. 

"This Conference respectfully urges upon His 
Majesty's Government to settle the Turkish question in 
accordance with the just and legitimate sentiments of the 
Indian Moslems and the solemn pledge of His Majesty's 
Ministers, and that, in the event of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment failing to settle the Turkish question in accordance 
with the just and legitimate sentiments of Indian Moslems 
and the solemn pledge of His Majesty's Ministers, this 
Conference calls upon the people to adopt a policy of pro- 
gressive Non-co-operation with the Government, as re- 
solved by the Khilafat Conference held at Madras under 
the presidency of Moulana Shaukat AIL" (West Coast 
Spectator, dated29th April, 1920). 

Mrs. Besant, who attended this Conference, made a 
splendid speech, protesting against the second part of 
the Resolution, but she was defeated and the non-co- 
operation resolution was carried by a large body of 
Moplahs, who formed the bulk of the audience and be- 
longed to the Ernad Taluk. " There were nearly a 
' thousand delegates at the roughest calculation, most of 



them being peasants with a large sprinkling of Moplahs, 
coming from every nook and corner of Ernad Taluk 
in all stages of attire, some of them just corqe ; from 
the plough and the farm." (West Coast Spectator, dated 
29th April, 1920). These were duped by political: leaders 
into passing a resolution on Khilafat, which they did not 
understand. 

The seed was thus sown on 28th April, 1920w If 
the Conference had been held at any other station out- 
side Ernad Taluk, the Khilafat Resolution would never 
have been passed. Manjeri was the scene of more than 
one Moplah outrage, and was the last place where the 
Conference should have been held. In Ernad Taluk, 
the Moplahs preponderate and there was nothing surpris- 
ing in the passing of the Khilafat Resolution with an 
overwhelming majority of Moplahs at the Conference. 

The next stage was the visit of Messrs. Gandhi and 
Shaukat AH to Calicut on 18th August, 1920, and their 
speeches on Khilafat and Non-co-operation (Appendix II) 
which led to the establishment of Khilafat Committees 
in Malabar. 

The object of the Congress was the attainment of 
Swaraj by legitimate and peaceful means, and the policy 
of the Khilafat was ' progressive non-co-operation with 
the Government with a view to settle the Turkish 
question in accordance with the just and legitimate 
sentiments of the Indian Moslems.' The object of both 
Congress and Khilafat became identical and that was, 

a 



IP 

ttf' paralyse the (idvernment by means of non-co-operation 
fbr'tfle attainment of Swaraj. 

The Moplahs Were fully agreeable to the Swaraj idea, 
they knew fuU'weh* that, but for the interference of the 
British' between; thenr and the Hindus, a Moslem Swaraj 
wonlii soon be a fait accompli, and now that the Hindus 
had also joined them, the accomplishment of the object 
Wlas easy .enough by violence, Khilafat associations were 
formed and Swaraj, ideas began tp spread. 

Inithe beginning, it was not a very, serious affair: the 
Moplah felt it an honour tp be called upon to take part 
in i meetings presided over by the Saintly Mahatma, by the 
Great;Moulaxi», by Barristers, High Court Vakils and other 
prominent men; be did not well understand the lengthy 
speeches delivered at meetings; but he felt himself elevat- 
ed: he. grew in importance as a Khilafat member ; his 
Musaliar was the secretary; his Thangal graced the posi- 
tion of chairman of the Khilafat Committee ; he rose high- 
er and higher, until he found himself a prominent member 
of the Hindu-Moslem Brotherhood, working for the at- 
tainment of Swaraj, for the salvation of the Khilafat; and 
of his own country, in which, under the British regime, 
the Indians were treated as 'coolies' and 'slaves.' 

Incessant preachings on Khilafat made him think 
seriously of the movement and of the possibility of a 
Swaraj ^ his Thangal and his Musaliar, in whom he had 
implicit faith; told him of the wrongs suffered by Turkey 
at 1 the hands of the white man; the Hindus, whom he 
bated as Kaffirs, were with' him and even the Malabar 



Nambudjri, the most orthodox and the most conservative 
{Hindu in Malabar, had joined hands with him in favour 
Of the Khilafat. He visited towns and made friends,— 
Moslem and Hindu, — he learnt new words and expressions; 
his manners were improved ; he began expounding religi- 
ous theories and explaining Khilafat wrongs and her*- the 
cartman, the labourer or the hewer of wood, — felt a new 
spirit surging and swelling up jn bid, so much so that he 
imagined that the end of the British Raj was imminent 
and that his own idealised Khilafat Government would 
speedily materialise ; indeed he contemptuously refused a 
Sub Magistrate's summons " on the ground that it should 
be served through the President of the Local Khjilafat 
Committee." (West Coast Spectator, dated 8th Febru- 
ary 1921). 

Several comparatively monster Khilafat meetings had 
been held at prominent Moplah centres during the few 
months immediately anterior to the burst of the incipient 
and inevitable conflagration of revolt without any inter- 
ference on the part of the authorities, but now, the 
District Magistrate felt that the unchecked continuance 
of such combustible demonstrations of contempt and 
defiance of constituted authority would result in riot and 
danger to human life, especially so, as one outcome of the 
previous meetings was an organised system of intimida- 
tion throughout the District. He received information 
that it was in contemplation to hold a series of meetings 
in Ernad Taluk, and that there was immediate, danger 
that the feelings of the more ignorant Moplahs wotdd 



!2 

thereby be inflamed against the Government as also 
against the Hindu Jenmis: he accordingly issued orders 
on 5th February, 1921, prohibiting all public meetings in 
Ernad Taluk: (Appendix III). 

This was followed shortly after by the visit of Mr. 
Yakub Hasan, a Khilafat leader of Madras and once a 
member of the Legislative Council, on 15th February, 
1921, for the purpose of addressing Khilafat and Non-co- 
operation meetings. He was travelling with his wife, 
and on his way, the very grand arrangements that were 
rhade at Tanur for his reception were marred by the 
order of the District Magistrate, prohibiting the holding 
of meetings there. And in Calicut, where elaborate 
arrangements had been made for according him a fitting 
reception, the District Magistrate served an order on him, 
prohibiting him from holding and addressing meetings in 
Calicut. Similar orders were served on Messrs. K. 
Madhavan Nair, U. Gopala Menon and P. Moideen 
Koya, conspicuous local Congress and Khilafat leaders 
and propagandists. They were not willing to obey that 
order, and on refusal to give security for keeping the 
peace, were all sent to prison for six months. The report 
of Mr. Yakub Hasan's visit and his arrest published in 
the West Coast Spectator (Appendix IV), conveys a toler- 
able idea of the sensation aroused in Calicut. The public 
mind was seriously disturbed : the Municipal Chairman 
resigned bis office : the Municipal Council, by a resolution 
condemned the action of the District Magistrate: vakils 
khrew np practice in courts, and hartal was observed. 



*3 

The resentment caused by the treatment meted out to 
Mr. Yakub Hasan was deep, and all this might have been 
avoided, had he been stopped at Madras, or had there 
been a general order of prohibition throughout the 
District, as had been recommended by the District 
Magistrate; in either case, the visitor would not have 
ventured into Calicut at all. 

The subject was discussed before the Legislative 
Council, Madras, and Diwan Bahadur M. Krishnan Nair 
observed that it was " extremely unfortunate and extremely 
deplorable that the District Magistrate of Malabar should 
have thought it fit to exercise these provisions of the 
Criminal Procedure Code and bring trouble" not only to 
himself, but to others, inclusive of the Government." 
(Legislative Council Discussion, 18th February, 1921, 
Appendix V). It was seriously questioned by the general 
public whether, in view of what had already transpired, — 
Mr. Gandhi's visit and speech in August, 1920, without 
any disturbance, — (Appendix II) there was necessity for 
any demonstration of force or any curtailment of the right 
of public meeting and public speech, at a time when non- 
violent spirit had already pervaded the masses and there 
was no intention and no visible disposition to indulge in 
lawlessness. Whether the District Magistrate was justi- 
fied or not, an impetus was certainly given to the Khilafat 
movement, and according to the figures quoted by Mr. K. 
P. ' Kesava Menon, Provincial Congress Secretary, in his 
speech after the release of the " Kerala Patriots ", the 
result of the incarceration was the '' formation of 230 



Congress Sabhas and the enlistment of several thousands 
of men as members," (Wist Coast Spectator, dated 18th 
Aygust, 1921). 

On 18th February, before the excitement had abated, 
Messrs. Rajagopala Chari and K. P. Kesava Menon, lead- 
ing Congress members, arrived from Madras and a huge 
crowd assembled at the Railway Station, Calicut to 
accord them a fitting reception. There was a procession 
" over two furlongs in extent " which marched to the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Yakub Hasan and " immediately after it 
passed through the Puthiyara Road, the District Magis- 
trate, the District Superintendent of Police and the 
Reserves proceeded {o the spot and dispersed the crowd." 
These officers, with the Reserve Police, then proceeded 
to Mr. Madhavan Nair's house, and the District Magis- 
trate had an interview with Messrs. Rajagopalachari and 
Kesava Menon. (West Coast Spectator, 19th February. 
1921.) This demonstration of force might have been 
necessary for the preservation of peace, but it added to the 
feeling of excitement and resentment caused by the arrest 
of Mr. Yakub Hasan and others. » 

; There is a fairly general feeling in Malabar that the 
Yakub Hasan episode was the turning point in the Khila- 
fat movement and that it was from about that period that 
the attitude of the Khilafatists became decidedly hostile 
and aggressive. The magistracy were now compelled to 
prohibit public meetings at different stations in the Dis- 
trict and to demand security from those who disobeyed 
the order ol prohibition. 



15 

Oh 26th February, 1921, four Moplahs of Ernad 
were sentenced to six months' imprisonment for refusing 
to furnish security to abstain from political meetings and 
delivering speeches. (West Coast Spectator, dated 1st 
March; 1921). The enquiry caused such local excite- 
ment and ; the Moplahs* enraged at the proceedings, 
collected in threatening numbers at the Parappanangadi 
Railway Station, when prisoners, Abu Backer and three 
others were despatched to Cannahore (Judg. in case 
No. 7/21). 

On 12th March, 1921, four Moplahs at Ponnahi were 
sentenced to six months' imprisonment for refusing to 
furnish security. (West Coast Spectator, dated 15th 
March, 1921). 

These and similar proceedings exasperated the 
Moplahs ; every action taken to check the movement was 
a pin-prick to them ; the spirit of antagonism grew day 
by day ; the principle of non-co-operation became defiant ; 
the Khilafat workers were passively aggressive and dis- 
obedience to lawful orders became their rule of conduct. 

On 22nd March, 1921, there was a big non-co- 
operation and Khilafat demonstration at Kalpakancherry, 
Ponnani Taluk, beyond the bounds of the prohibited 
area. A monster procession was headed by a former 
Moplah Adhigari* who had resigned his post in pursuance 
of N. C. O. and boycott resolutions. Mr. Kesava Mendn, 
Secretary of the Provincial Congress Committee, Calicut, 

•Adhigari = Village Utadman. 



16 

presided and said that " Swaraj was the only remedy for 
the Khilafat and Punjab wrongs. A time might come 
when they would have to refuse to pay taxes, but by that 
time, their own organisation must be complete." (Madras 
Mail, November, 16, 1921). Kalpakancherry is an amsom 
with a population of 6,846 Moplahs, against 957 Hindus, 
and a speech suggestive of a possible Swaraj and non- 
payment of taxes was surely dangerous in that locality 
at that stage of Moplah excitement. 

On 30th March, 1921, there was a meeting at which 
one Abdulla Kutti Musaliar of Vayakkad lectured on 
Khilafat, in Kizhakoth Amsom, Calicut Taluk. And at 
a second meeting held the next day at Pannur Mosque, 
there was some unpleasantness between the Moplahs 
on one side, and Nayars and Tiyyars, who resented the 
Khilafat meeting, on the other. Moplahs mustered 
strong and proceeded to attack the Matom (place of wor- 
ship) belonging to the Hindu Adhigari of the village. 
Twenty-six Moplahs were fined and bound over to keep 
the peace, and, during the hearing of the case at Calicut, 
the sensation caused was so great that the Divisional 
Magistrate had to prohibit Khilafat meetings at Calicut, 
as also within five miles of the Municipality for a period 
of one month. (Appendix VI.) 

The next important development was tbe Ottapalam 
incident. At this Station, there were four conferences 
held on 23rd, 24th and 25th April, 1921. Delegates, 
volunteers and visitors came in largJWmbers from diffe- 
rent parts of the District and the Reserve Police Force, 



4? 

who were on duty, contributed a good deal to the success 
of the Conference by their presence and non-interference. 
On the 26th, there was a collision between the Reserve 
Police and some Khilafat workers. 

An Emergency Committee was appointed by the 
leaders of the Conference to investigate the report on 1-he 
collision between the police and the Congress and Khjla- 
fat workers, and they recorded the opinion, " that the re- 
serve police of Malabar, the local Police of Ottapalam 
and the superior Police Officers were, before the com- 
mencement of the riot, engaged in a criminal conspiracy 
for the purpose of provoking a breach of peace and viol- 
ence on the part of non-co-operators, and then using 
reprisals and finally fixing the responsibility on the 
movement of non-co-operation." 

On the report of the Emergency Coipniittee being 
brought to the notice of the Government, Mr. R. H. Hitch- 
cock, District Superintendent 01 Police, was authorised 
to file a suit for damages against the signatories to this 
report and the Editor and proprietor of Hindu news- 
paper. (Press Communique dated 4th July, 1921). 

A suit was accordingly filed and the Sub-Judge, 
Calicut, decided it in favour of Mr. Hitchcock, the 
defendants being ordered to pay damages to him. He 
recorded a finding that " the assault was committed by 
the men of the Special Force and that, to that extent, 
the facts stated in the report are true," but that the 
charge of conspiracy was groundless. . {West Coast 
Spectator, 16th September 1922). 

9 



IS 

On 25th April, it was resolved, at the District 
Khilafat Conference, that, "since the Khilafat question 
cannot be satisfactorily settled without Swaraj, this 
Conference calls upon the Mussalmans of Kerala, both 
men and women, over 21 years of age to join the 
Congress Sabhas in their respective town and villages." 
{West Co.:st Spectator, dated 28th April, 1921). 

By June, 1921, Congress Sabhas had increased to a 
respectable figure in Kerala. Mr. K. P. Kesava Menon 
published the strength on 11th June, 1921, to be 189 
Sabhas and 18,007 members, excluding 38 Sabhas, who 
had not reported their figures. The Congress had 
adopted the principle of non-co-operation ; Khilafat and 
non-co-operation movements were indistinguishable ; and 
they were worked as the common platform of the Con- 
gress in Malabar. Every Moplah centre had a Khilafat 
association, with a Moplah president, a Moplah secretary 
and a majority of Moplah members. The number or 
such Khilafat committees is not known, but in Case 
No. 128 of 1922, on the file of the Special Judge, Calicut, 
it has been mentioned that "there may have been as 
many' as 100 Khilafat Committees formed in the two 
taluks of Ernad and Ponnani." 

At this stage, a religious teacher of Tirurangadi 
named Ali Musaliar rose to prominence as a Khilafat 
leader. He posed as a great leader of the people. 
Khilafat and non-co-operation meetings were held re- 
..gularly under Ali Musaliar, and "these constant preach- 
ings, combined with the resolution passed in the 



10 

All-India Khilafat Conference at Karachi last July, led 
the ignorant Moplahs to believe that the end of the 
British Government in India was at hand. AH Musaliar 
and his lieutenants were making secret preparations for 
active and direct hostility against the British Govern- 
ment. News was spread that the Amir of Afghanistan 
was about to invade India and, with the assistance of 
Gandhi and Ali Brothers, would establish the Khilafat 
rule in the country. Khilafat volunteers were recruited 
and made to swear on the Holy Koran that they would 
be ready to die for the cause of the Khilafat. Ali 
Musaliar also made his volunteer corps parade through- 
out the locality, armed and in their uniforms, and such 
demonstrations added to the strength of this mischievous 
movement." (Public Prosecutor's speech, West Coast 
Spectator, October 6, 192H. 

On 8th June, Ramzan Day, Ali Musaliar headed a 
procession of 300 to 400 Khilafat Volunteers, who were 
mostly dressed in Khaki and had swords, and went from 
Kizhekkepalli Mosque to the compound next to the 
public offices at Tirurangadi, where Moplahs killed in one 
of the outbreaks of the last century were buried. There 
they offered prayers. These graves were a prohibited 
place of meeting and such prayers were only offered 
before an outbreak and, in the present instance, it was 
done for the success of the Khilafat cause. (Judgement 
in Case No. 7/21). 

On the 18th of that month, the Deputy Superint- 
endent of Police visited Tirurangadi to interview , Ali 



20 

Musaliar. The latter met him with a mob of 600 
Moplahs, among whom were 50 Khilafat volunteers 
wearing uniforms and emblems — carrying knives in 
sheaths. 

Qn the 22nd July, there was a Khilafat gathering at 
Tirurangadi, were 15,000 men were computed to be 
present. Oyer 100 volunteers in uniform kept discipline 
and order throughout and Mr. K. P. Kesava Menon 
delivered a speech, laying "emphasis on non-violence 
and congratulating the townsmen, who were the second 
in Kerala Jo send her share of men to the Central Jail 
for the cause." {West Coast Spectator, 23rd July, 1922). 

The beginnings of the future Khilafat army were in 
the 'making, and, at an anti-non-co-operation Meeting 
held at Ponnani on 24th July to counteract the effects of 
the Khilafat agitation, Ali Musaliar, "turned up with his 
volunteer force of about 50 to 100 volunteers armed with 
big Khilafat knives and clad in Khilafat uniform, march- 
ing under a red flag, with shouts of Allah-Ho-Akbar. 
The volunteers rushed the Police in the bazaar." 
(Judgement in Case No. 7/21). 

The storm was brewing; volunteers, i.e., "unpaid 
soldiers meant to fight when occasion arises in support of 
the cause for which they were enrolled" had been 
enlisted. (Judgement in Case No. 7/21) : they were 
armed with big knives and were marching with their 
leaders to attend public meetings: they were actually 
met by'trie t)ep4aty^Stiperin^endent of Police at Tirurangadi 



21 

and Ponnani, and no doubt, the same preparations were 
going on at other Moplah stations. 

A week after the Ponnani meeting, the first signs of 
the impending trouble and the first indications of the exist- 
ence of a more or less elaborately organised movement for 
the defiance and overthrow of constituted authority rudely 
revealed themselves at the village of Pookotur, which lies 
within the influence of that fanatical portion of East Ernad 
whereof the Mausoleum of the Malappuram Saidakkal 
(Malappuram martyrs) is the radiating point. The house 
of V. Mohammad, the local Khilafat Secretary and close 
associate of Ali Musaliar, was searched by the Police for 
a gun alleged to have been stolen from the Pookotur Palace 
of the Nilambur Tirumulpads, and this gave the Moplahs 
the opportunity, for which they were waiting, of asserting 
the authority and force of the Khilafat movement. On 
the pretext that the search was unjust and uncalled for, a 
crowd of several hundreds of Moplahs, armed with knives, 
swords and spears, collected with astounding rapidity and 
advanced on the Palace. It transpired that they had been 
summoned from various neighbouring and outlying villag- 
es by a tocsin of drums beaten in local and neighbouring 
mosques. They levied blackmail from the landlord on 
threat of murder and also threatened to murder the 
Circle Inspector of Police, Mr. M. Narayana Menon, 
no"w Deputy Superintendent of Police, who recognised 
the necessity of dealing tactfully with a situation, 
which, if allowed to get out of hand, would precipitate 
a general conflagration, more so as Moplah women, 



22 

with prayer beads moved among the excited throngs 
of their menfolk, heartening and urging on the latter. 
The Inspector enlisted the services of Kunhi Koya 
Thangal, President of the Khilafat Committee, Malap- 
puram, through whose interposition the Moplahs were 
pacified, for the time being at any rate. " Nothing in the 
way of British administration, such as collection of taxes, 
serving of summons, etc., could be done there " (Police 
Inspector's deposition, West Coast Spectator, 8th October, 
1921.) 

Concerning this Pookotur incident, there have been 
allegations in some of the newspapers that it was due 
solely to agrarian discontent, and certain remarks of the 
Elaya Tirumulpad, now the Senior, lent colour to this 
view. (Appendix VII.) 

Had V. Mohammad, a person of obscure status, been 
merely the ordinary tenant he was, without Khilafat in- 
signia and leanings, a search of his house by the Police 
would have been attended by no outburst of resentment. 
But as a prominent Khilafat official, wielding a measure 
of influence chiefly among the bigotted and untutored 
masses of his co-religionists, with his prestige to maintain 
amongst his fellow-workers of the Khilafat world, and 
having imbibed the spirit of independence, or rather con- 
tempt' for constituted authority that is bred in the Khila- 
fat movement, V. Mohammad felt the Police search to be 
a deliberate insult flung by the Police and the Manager 
Tirumulpad in the very face of the Khilafat cause, and 
being; moreover, in a position where his party were much 



'23 

the stronger, numerically and physically, (Moplahs and 
Hindus number 852 and 437 respectively in Pookotur 
Desom,* he believed that he could with impunity not only 
defy his landlord, but snap his fingers in the face of the 
authorities. The old President of the Khilafat Committee 
of Malappuram temporarily eased the situation by a com- 
promise which, nevertheless, showed clearly the trend of 
the Khilafat movement, *. e., defiance of constituted 
authority, non-co-operation and Swaraj. 

No evidence has yet been forthcoming to warrant the 
allegation regarding agrarian discontent, but it would 
appear that there was some trouble — what it was, it is not 
possible to say — between the Pookotur Moplahs and the 
Manager Tirumulpad of the Pookotur Estate. This lack 
of cordiality was aggravated by the Police search instituted 
at the instance of the Manager, and V. Mohammad exploit- 
ed the Khilafat movement and the fractious temper of his 
co-religionists to wreak vengeance. The Moplahs de- 
manded " their wages at 9 o'clock at night, threatened the , 
manager and became very turbulent " (Appendix VII) and 
in this jungly, remote and fanatical hamlet of Pookotur, 
the civil administration practically ceased to function 
from 2nd August, 1921. 

Never before, since the cession of the District by 
Tippu of Mysore in 1792 to the East India Company, 
had such a situation arisen in this District and a general 
impression quickly spread among the short-sighted and 

"Dysam « Part of an Amsom or Village. 



bigotted sections of Moplahs that they had gained a 
yictory over the British Government. 

Prompt action was necessary. The West Coast Spect- 
ator of 9th August, 1921, sounded the following warning. 
" Even though the riot is averted for the present, it is 
feared that the Muhammadan fury may break out at any 
moment and assume dangerous proportions. Immediate 
attention of the Government is invited to the matter." 

Another equally solemn message was given in a letter 
dated 13th August published in the Madras Mail of the 
15th idem from its representative in Malabar : — " Although 
the situation has quieted, the atmosphere is still electric 
and I learn, that motor cars going along the Malappuram 
road are held up and examined. A few days ago, a car 
occupied by a couple of well-known Moplah merchants 
of those parts, was stoned, and it is significant that these 
gentlemen are known to disapprove of the Khilafat agit- 
ation. As may readily be inferred, the Hindu inhabitants 
• of Pookotur and its environs are continuing to experience 
a feeling of insecurity. All the inmates of a Nambudiri 
Illom* situated near the Kovilagamt have been removed 
to Calicut, and, perhaps, this measure of prudence was 
justified by the circumstance that a number of the assem- 
bled Moplahs visited the Illom and left the richer by a 
considerable quantity of ( paddy and some ready money. 
Hindu blacksmiths of the locality are being intimidated 
into making swords and knives, a good many of these out 



*lUota" Nambudiri resideaoe. ^lf.07iUftm-P*\ta9. 



25 

of carpenters' saws." Before these warnings had been 
sounded in the Press, the local Police would presumably 
have reported to the authorities about the preparations 
made by the Moplahs. 

There is no information available to the public as 
to what action was taken, but it can hardly be supposed 
that the authorities would remain idle in the face of the 
warnings received by them. A statement was however 
made in the Madras Mail of 22nd August, 1921, that the 
District Magistrate had 'set the law in motion and 
summoned some of those implicated in the crime to 
answer a charge under the Security Sections and that 
these Moplahs refused to appear.' 

On 17th August, 1921, Messrs. K. Madhavan Nair, 
U. Gopala Menon and P. Moideen Koya arrived in 
Calicut on their release from the Central Jail. They 
were taken in procession by the main roads by the side 
of the Collector's Office to the beach, where a mass 
meeting was held, presided over by Mr. Kunhi Koya 
Thangal, President of a Khilafat Committee. An address 
was presented and speeches followed. 

It was a proud day for the movement ; the Calicut 
beach became consecrated to the spirit of Non-co-opera- 
tion : it had witnessed the meeting presided over by Mr. 
Gandhi on 18th August, 1920, and it witnessed the 
meeting of the " Kerala Patriots " a year later on the 
17th August, 1921. It would tickle the vanity of an 
ordinary human being to be thus honoured by the towns 

4 



26 

people under the very nose of the District Magistrate, 
who had awarded the sentence of imprisonment. 

There was no disturbance, however, and, in the 
words of the West Coast Spectator, dated 18th August, 
1921: — "There was not less than 15,000 people who 
seemed to have been stimulated by one ambition, one 
feeling, one spirit. In spite of the huge nature of the 
crowd, there was sombre tranquility which indicated 
their desire to act in unison in any common object. A 
special feature of the large crowd was the wearing of 
Khaddar cloths and Gandhi caps. Hindus and Mussal- 
mans looked alike in this costume." 

The Unity was perfect. It was 5 P. M. on the 17th 
August, 1921. Who among the crowd was able to forsee 
what the third day would bring ? 

The Hindu believed in Hindu-Moslem unity and 
never dreamed of a day when the Moslem would turn 
against him : the Moplab had no such delusion : he 
wanted Moslem Swaraj : he worked for it : he was ready 
for a general rising and bided his time. An opportunity 
presented itself when the District Magistrate, in the 
lawful discharge of his duties, proceeded to Tirurangadi 
for the arrest of the Khilafat leader, Ali Musaliar, and 
others. His arrival was the signal for a general insur- 
rection. The Tirurangadi revolutionary leaders despat- 
ched runners to neighbouring and outlying villages to 
summon their Khilafat followings to their aid: false 
rumours were spread that the famous Mambram Mosque 
was tazed to the ground: and armed rabbles, some 



11 

bearing aloft Khilafat standards, soon came swarming in. 
The events of the day — 20th August — are summarised 
in the following Press Communique, dated 26th August, 
1921 :— 

"The District Magistrate has received information 
that a number of war-knives were in existence in Tirur- 
angadi in contravention of the Malabar Offensive 
Weapons Act XX of 1854. It was also necessary to 
arrest for incitement to outrage certain persons in Tirur- • 
angadi, under Section 8 of the Moplah Outrages Act. 
Anticipating that a resistance would be made, a requisi- 
tion was made for a detachment of British troops to 
support the police and the party arrived at Tirurangadi, 
before dawn, on the 20th August. Searches were made 
and three men arrested, and a small party of Reserve 
Police left behind to continue the search for the absent 
warrantees. The Kizhekkepalli Mosque was entered by 
Moplah Police Officers, who removed their boots before 
entering the Mosque. The Mambram Mosque, which is 
on the other side of the river, was not approached by 
anybody. 

Between the hours 11-30 and 2 P. M., a determined 
attack was made from two sides on the force of Police 
and troops by armed bands coming from Tanur, Parap- 
panangadi and adjoining amsoms on the west, and from 
Tirurangadi and amsoms on the east, as far as Ponmala 
and Kottakal. The attacks were beaten off, but two 
officers were surrounded and butchered by the mob. 
The force stayed the night a,t Tirurangadi, as, by this 



28 

time, the Railway Station aj Parappanangadi had been 
wrecked and in the morning marched to Parappanangadi 
and thence along the Railway line to Feroke, being 
attacked constantly by armed Moplahs on the way for 
the first three miles. The railway line had already been 
cut in several places, as far as Feroke." 

At Feroke, the train was waiting, and the District 
Magistrate and party entrained at 10 P. M. and arrived 
at Calicut at midnight. On Monday morning, (22nd 
August), the Officer Commanding, Malabar Area, was 
require to take charge of Calicut. 

The communique continues, " This attempt to make 
searches and arrests under legal warrants in due con- 
formity with the law has been a signal for an outburst of 
fanaticism throughout Ernad, Walluvanad and Ponnani 
directed first against European Officials and Non-officials 
and latterly against Hindu Jenmis* and others. Public 
Offices have been looted everywhere, Manast and 
Kovilagams pillaged, Hindus murdered or forcibly con- 
verted, and the line cut to an extent, regarding which 
there is no information." 

The storm had burst with a vengeance. Civil 
administration came to a standstill: the sub-treasuries 
in the rebellion area were looted and lakhs of rupees 
carried away : public buildings and records were burnt : 
Munsiffs, Magistrates, and Police Officers had to seek 
refuge elsewhere : Police Officials were overwhelmed by 
rebel hordes and had to surrender their arms : Hindu 
fJenmis = Landlords. tMana=>Nambudiri residence. 




Mother weeping over the fate of her children 
forcibly converted. 



21 

Village Officials had left their villages; and, even- 
tually, the train traffic stopped for a week between 
Shoranur and Calicut. Murders, dacoities, forced con- 
versions and outrages on Hindu women became the 
order of the day. Hindu refugees in thousands poured 
into Calicut, Palghat, the Cochin State, and other 
places wending their weary way over hills and through 
jungles for safety from the lust and savagery of the 
Moplahs. 

It was a rude shock to the Non -co-operators : im- 
mediately on hearing the news of the rebellion, Messrs. 
K. P. Kesava Menon and U. Gopala Menon proceeded 
to Ernad and advised the Moplahs to abandon their 
rebellious movement : but these persuasions proved 
wholly futile. Mr. K. Madhavan Nair, who had gone on 
to Malappuram immediately after his release from 
Cannanore, also vainly endeavoured to stem the tide of 
the rebellion. 

HINDU-MOSLEM UNITY A DREAM! 

The question may well be asked why the Unity that 
had been so well demonstrated for more than a year 
should have received so stunning a blow. 

Well, the truth is there was an artificial, constrained 
display of affection on the part of Moplahs towards 
Hindus, especially towards those who were in favour of 
the Khilafat movement, in view of the new idea of 
Hindu- Moslem unity: the latter deemed it their duty to 
foster that affection, for the purpose of obtaining Swaraj, 



30 

end the better classes among the Moplahs must have 
sincerely hoped for that unity and must have honestly 
regretted the rebellion. The Ernad Moplah had not the 
refinement or culture, even enough mental capacity, to 
understand the ideal placed before him by Mr. Gandhi. 

In the realms of industry, the Moplah has no rival : 

his good qualities in ordinary life are admitted : during 

' this rebellion, several instances have occurred of Moplahs 

having helped Hindus to escape, but individual instances 

'do not prove the rule: and it is a lesson that the Hindus 

' have now learnt that once the Moplah is master of the 

situation, he cares for no one : his religious frenzy impels 

him, to convert and his plundering propensities impel him 

to loot. 

On 17th August; the unity was, to all appearance, 

perfect and' within three days, the Moplahs rose in 

arms against the British Government, a purely Khilafat 

Movement, and all the evil passions that had been curbed 

through the preachings of Mr. Gandhi found vent in 

wholesale murder, loot and rapine, and the Ernad 

Moplah, ignorant, illiterate, and fanatical, stood exposed 

in all the terrible characteristics of his savage nature. 

It was an organised rising ; the rebels had manufac- 

1 tured war-knives and swords: collected firearms and 

1 swords from Hindu houses: also from Police stations: 

1 they wrecked the rail-road and cut telegraph lines, 

I destroyed bridges, felled trees and blocked roads, dug 

t trenches and lay in ambush to attack the passing troops : 

in fact, they acted as men who had gained some littW 



31 

knowledge of modern war-fare, having learned these 
tactics from disbanded sepoys, who had seen service in 
Mesopotamia and who, having joined the rebels, instruct- 
ed these Khilafat soldiery as to how they should proceed. 
There was significance in the Tirur incident, when a 
Moplah, an ex-sepoy, insisted on two soldiers surrendering 
the bolts of their rifles along with the latter. But "had 
a company or two of a British regiment been at hand 
near the centre of disturbance, we should have been 
spared most of these atrocities, and the official, who is 
chiefly to blame for all this trouble, is the one, who, to 
save a few rupees, did away sometime ago with Malap- 
puram as a Military station." (Mr. L. E. Kirwan's letter, 
dated 2nd September, 1921 in the Madras Mail). 



CHAPTER It. 

MILIARY OPERATIONS. 



In' normal times, for several years past, the regular 
Military Garrison of Malabar consisted of a detachment 
of British Infantry stationed at Calicut, and another at 
Malappuram. The Malappuram detachment served as 
a check on outbursts of Moplah fanaticism and its 
services were often required to suppress Moplah oat- 
rages; Malappuram- had recently been abolished as a 
military station and the regular Military Garrison in the 
District was thus reduced to the Half-Company at 
Calicut. The total strength of the Army in India did 
not allow of any greater provision being made for the 
District. But at this time, there was also an Indian 
Battalion at Cannanore. 

A few days before the burst of the rebellion, the half 
company of the Second Leinster Regiment at Calicut 
had, at the request of the Madras Government, been re- 
inforced by three platoons of the same unit from Madras, 
making the total strength one-and-a-half Company or 
something under 200 rifles. The civil authorities 
requested military aid for a search of concealed arms at 
Tirurangadi ; about three platoons of the Calicut garrison 
accompanied them, of whom on platoon was sent forward 
to Malappuram to secure that place. The District 



33 

Magistrate arrived, at Tirurangadi ip the early morning- 
of Saturday, the 20th August, accompanied ,by $he 
remaining platoons of the Leinster Regiment and a body 
of Special Po)jce. The search was qver by about 
10 A. M., apd, three men were arrested. At quarter to 
twelve, information was recejyed that a crowd of 2000 
Moplahs from Tanur had pome by train to Parappanan- 
gadi and were advancing pn Tirurangadi. It was decided, 
to go at qnce and meet jjie mqb. The column consisted, 
of ^ei^sters and the Reserve police, led by Messrs, 
Mainwaring and ^itcfocock on the left, and Messrs. 
Lancaster and Amoo Sahib on the right, with the.MaJap- 
purarn Special ( Force in the rear. At abopt 12-30, .a 
mile and a half or so from Tirurangadi, the column en- 
countered a mob of Moplahs, between 2,000 and 3,666 
with a Khilafat flag in front, and without taking the 
slightest notice of the order to disperse. The Reserve 
Police charged with fixed bayonets, but the Moplahs 
brought their clubs down on the bayonets and' rifle 
barrels. A fight ensued between the front ranks of trie 
two forces, a constable had his head cut open, Mr. Lan- 
caster received a blow on his head, and in self defence 
the Government party fired without waiting for the word 
of command. -Nine rebels were killed, and three, inclu- 
ding .the standard bearer, were wounded, The mob 
hegajn.to retreat, but the leader, Kunhi jRadir, Khilafat 
Secretary at Tanur, \vas arrested with ,40 other Mopl.afcs. 
The column returned to Tirurangadi. 

A*i th}5,s1ja,tion, a small party consisting of Leinsters 
and the Police had been left to guard the camp, with 

i" 



34 

Lieut. W. R. Johnstone and Mr. Rowley, Assistant 
Superintendent. A mob estimated at 2000, advancing 
from another direction, attacked this party and were 
dispersed with Lewis guns and magazine fire, but the two 
officers, who had advanced towards the mob for a parley, 
and Head Constable Moideen, who acted as interpreter, 
were surrounded and murdered by the rebels. Their 
bodies were lying on the road terribly mutilated and 
hacked and were recovered by the District Magistrate 
and his party. They stopped at Tirurangadi Camp 
apprehending an attack from the Moplahs, who were 
assembled in the Tirurangadi Mosque. The District 
Magistrate handed over the situation at 7 P. M. to the 
Officer Commanding as beyond civil powers. 

There was no attack during the night. It was impos- 
sible however, to remain there any longer, without rations 
and without communications and in the face of vastly 
superior numbers, so the next morning, Sunday the 21st, 
at 8-30 A. M., after burying the dead, the District Magis- 
trate and party marched back to Parappanangadi. The 
railway station and the Post Office had been sacked and 
the telegraph lines cut. At 2 P. M., the column began to 
march along the railway for Kadalundi, beating off sever- 
al attacks on both flanks, front and rear, during the first 
three miles. The railway line had been cut in several 
places, with the obvious intention of isolating the column. 
From Kadalundi, they marched direct to Feroke, where 
the train was waiting, which took the column back to 
Calicut by midnight. 



35 

In the meantime, the Railway from Calicut towards 
Podanur was attacked and seriously damaged in so many 
places as to put it completely out of action. Civil 
rebellion and disorder broke out and spread quickly and 
widely. The Military Commander at Calicut, at the 
request of the Civil Authorities, established a temporary 
Military regime for the safe-guarding of life and property 
and the restoration of law and order. 

The G. O. C, Madras District, at the request of the 
Madras Government, organised the following force to 
restore railway communication with Calicut and to 
re-establish law and order in the affected areas : 
J. Squadron of the Queen's Bays, one section Royal 
Field Artillery, and the 2nd Battalion, Dorset Regiment, 
and subsequently one company of the 64th Pioneers. 

Colonel E. T. Humphreys was appointed Military 
Commander by Superior Military Authority and took 
charge on the 22nd August, and on the same day the 
force organised at Bangalore commenced its move 
towards Malabar. Mr. F. B. Evans. I. C. s., joined the 
Military Commander on 25th August as Civil Adviser. 

The Military Officer Commanding at Calicut had 
rendered that place secure and H. M. S. Comus arrived 
off the port and landed a detachment of the ship's 
company. In the circumstances, it was possible to 
detach a small force to the relief of Malappuram via 
Kundotti. The Moplah rebels were prepared to dispute 
the passage. At Pookotur, the detachment of Leinsters 
and Special Police Force was attacked by a large body 



36 

of Moplah rebels at about 11 a. m. on 26th August. 
They were well-armed with carbines captured from 
Police stations they had looted, as well as with some 
sporting rifles, swords and warknives.- They displayed 
their traditional ferocity and eagerness for death, and 
after five hours' fighting were beaten off, their casualties 
being estimated at 400 killed. Two British soldiers 
were killed ; and an officer and seven men were wounded. 
Mr. Lancaster, Assistant Superintendent of Police, was 
shot and died shortly afterwards. The detachment 
marched into Malappuram and found all safe and well. 

The Malappuram Garrison was brought back to 
Calicut, detachments of Auxiliary Force had also been 
mobilised at Calicut, and a detachment of the 83rd 
Walajati Light Infantry was moved into Calicut. At the 
same time, repairs to the railway were proceeded with 
southwards from Calicut by the Calicut Force, and 
westward from Shoranur, by the Bangalore Force. 
Througn communication was restored on August 28th. 
From this date, therefore, the troops were able to 
commence the restoration of order in the affected areas 
away from the Railway line, a task which had not been 
possible, until through communication had been re- 
established. 

On 29th August, Martial Law was proclaimed in 
the Taluks of Calicut, Ernad, Wall'uvanad, Ponnani, 
Kiirumbranad and Wynad. 

Ali Musaliar, Khilafat leader, installed on 22nd 
Auguftt' 1921,. bb "Ali Raja'\ wii «till iri Tiirutangadi 



37 

with a strong rebel force* and a British Cdlumri marched 
towards that station which they reached on 30th August. 
They found the Kizhekkepalli Mosque held by rebels. 
The Mosque was surrounded, but no assault was made 
as it was desired to spare the mosque. At 9-15 A. M., on 
31st August, the rebels opend fire from the Mosque, 
rushed out and charged the troops. Twenty-four rebels 
were killed, and 38 prisoners surrendered. The prisoners 
included Ali Musaliar and other rebel leaders. Sixteen 
firearms, including 12 Police Rifles and carbines, and a 
number of swords, were recovered. 

With the capture of Ali Musaliar on 31st August 
ends the first act of the drama. During these ten days, 
20th to 31st, Hindu Malabar lay helpless at the feet of the 
Mopla rebels : it was a tale of woe to every Hindu family ; 
it was destruction of every public building and of every 
temple : it was murder of Europeans, whenever possible 
and sufficient Government forces were not available until 
the 28th to cope with the situation^ The one bright light 
was the Pookotur battle, the effect of which was the sal- 
vation of the Ernad Hindus. It had been arranged that 
on 26th August, Friday, after the Jama prayer, all the 
Hindus in Manjeri and the neighbouring villages should 
be brought into the Mosques and converted to the Moslem 
faith : caps, dresses, and jackets were, all ready for distri- 
bution among the converts, but the idea of wholesale con- 
version had to be given up at the time, in consequence of 
the Pookotur Battle. 

The> next stags of Military operations extends over : a 



3S 

comparatively long period : it began with the despatch of 
troops for the restoration of order. 

The base of operations was Tirur. Colonel Hum- 
phreys Military Commander, Mr. Evans, Civil adviser, 
ahd Mr. Hitchcock, District Superintendent of Police, who 
acted as Intelligence officer and was also in command of 
a force of Police operating under the Military Commander, 
had their head-quarters at Tirur until October 14th. 
From that date onwards they transferred their head- 
quarters to Malappuram. 

The troops were sent out in different directions for 
the restoration of order and for the suppression of. the 
rebellion; the process was necessarily long; the area 
covered was a wide one ; it included some difficult coun- 
try; forests like Pandalur and Nilambur afforded ideal 
cover for the Moplah rebels and the hilly and jungly tracts 
on the eastern borders were not favourable for Military 
operations, while they enabled the Moplahs to elude the 
troops. 

At first, the Moplahs gave open battle, but subse- 
quently, they changed their tactics and relied on ambush- 
es and guerilla warfare, returning to loot and destroy 
, places after troops had left them. They avoided military 
columns on all occasions except when there was a chance 
of success. 

i The following Military units were at one time or 
other employed in Malabar: — The Leinster, Suffolk, and 
Dorset regiments, the Queen's Bays, 2/8th and 2/9th 



39 

Gurkhas, l/39th Gharwal Rifles, 3/70th Burma Rifles 
(Chin-Kachins), 83rd Walajabad Light Infantry and 
ancillary services, such as Sappers and Miners, Poineers, 
Pack Batteries, Armoured cars, Supply and Transport, 
Wireless operators, Mechanical Transport and R. A. M. C. 

The armed reserves of Calicut and Malappuram at 
the beginning of the outbreak were 210 strong and, dur- 
ing the rebellion, the force known as the Malabar Special 
Police was raised in the District and eventually reached 
a strength of 600. (Legislative Council Interpellations, 
14th November 22.) 

The movements of the troops, the encounters with 
the rebels, the casualties, the arrests and the surrenders 
have been published from time to time in Press , Com- 
muniques, and it is impossible to condense them into a 
connected narrative. 

\/ The rebellion was at its height in September, Octo- 
ber, November and December, 1921, and, during this 
period, the troops were engaged in pursuing the rebels. 
Afew important events are given below : these are quota- 
tions from Communiques published in the papers arranged 
in chronological order and though not complete in details, 
will give an idea of the progress of the rebellion and the 
resistance offered by the rebels. 

18th September, 21 :— A party of British soldiers 
under a British Officer with Mr. Elliot, Superintendent 
of Police, and a Jamadar were returning to Malappuram 
via Manjeri in six motor cars after searching a house in 



40 

PoOkotur amsonv where the treasure looted from the 
Government treasury at Manjeri, was .believed, to have 
been secreted, and, on reaching a place known as.Neeru- 
lul, spme shots were fixed at them. The motors were on 
a precipitousiroad, surxounded by Tav}ne$, and when they 
stopped, and. when the troops got down, a Moplah rushed 
at a soldier and struck him op the face with a knife! Mr. 
Elliot immediately shot him down with his revolver. An- 
other Moplah, who was making his way from the thick 
bushes ^owards the party, was shot down by a soldier. 
The British Officer and a party then went through the 
bush with a machine-gun, to see if there were any other 
Moplahs still hiding there* and were attacked by not less 
than sixty Moplahs. These men rah j>ut at them, tbut 
when' troops opened fire, they ran away,, leaving six, or 
seven dead' The Jamadar was wounded by a bullet 
through the hand. After a complete search, the . party 
returned to* Malappuram. 

19th September 21 :— A small column visited Manjeri 
and was fired on at long range, but' sustained no casual- 
ties. 

^tbjSeptember^lrTrTh^Compajnyof Suflplks pper- 
a^g^rpm^Q^tapalarfl, reports no opposition and the ar- 
rest of 44 rebels. 

;,M#jox ,}Ve|doj)'s,, column of ;Docsets ,majtehed;from 
P,and}ka4 |to ( deal wjtfi. rebels ; at; ^emini.an^, was attached 
sppn ;j af^er ( leavingcamp- Thfc-casu^dties^ar^: = Other, ranks, 
Ptots^ts^.k^led, two, woujnded p^and, QP? I?p4 nonstable 



'41 

wounded. The houses at Nemini were surrounded. Enemy 
casualties are one killed, 14 captured, and a number of 
firearms and swords were also captured. The ambush is 
believed ito have been planned by the guides who are now 
under arrest. 

Rebels are reported to be stHl in force round Manjeri 
estimated at 300. The Pandicad Post reports 300 rebels 
looting Tuvoor from South and 'East. 

Kunhamacl Haji, a leading rebel, is reported to be 
issuing passes for Rs. 5 each, which every one has to pay 
before he can go from Nilambur. 

24th September 21:— Two platoons, Suffolks, visited 
Mannarghat, but rebels bad 'left after looting all Hindu 
shops. This detachment joined rest of Column at Karim- 
puzha, five miles south-west of Mannarghat. Rebels round 
Cherpulcheri surrendering and handing in Weapons, 233 
prisoners taken. Mambad post made 23 arrests and cap- 
tured some weapons. Detachment, 83rd \V. L, I., made 
3 arrests north of Edakkulam. 

A column reached Nilambur after overcoming some 
opposition. 

27th September 2 1:— Rebels engaged to-day morning 
between the triangle Malappuram, Manjeri, and Valluvam- 
puram : a fair number were killed. The operations were 
fairly successful. 

,29th September 21:— In the Council of State to-day 
Mr, Craik, replying ,to Syed Ra*a Ali, said that the latest 
information received by the Government of India is to the 



42 

effect that the Moplah fighting gang probably total 10,000 
strong ; that their resistance is becoming stronger and 
that their programme is based on guerilla warfare, plunder, 
terrorism, and avoidance of battle. Military operations 
probably involving the use of increased force and necessit- 
ating the strict enforcement of Martial law are therefore 
likely to be protracted, and it is impossible to forecast the 
day on which the Martial Law can be withdrawn. 

30th September 21 : — A gang pf 500 Moplahs engaged 
a detachment. of Suffolk regiment near Kumaramputhur. 
The Moplah casualties are estimated at 40 or 50 killed. 

1st October 21 : — Colonel Herberts and Lieutenant 
Harvey, the Quarter- Master, with a few soldiers, were 
on a lorry which was rationing Nilambur. On the way 
there, they were warned by two Police Constables that 
rebels were lurking on the road, but ^hey pushed on and, 
having delivered the rations, were returning by the same 
road to their posts, when they saw the bodies of the 
Police men lying on the road with their throats cut. 
Simultaneously, the lorry party were fired on at close 
range, resulting in one soldier being killed and Colonel 
Herberts and Lieut. Harvey being wounded, the latter 
mortally. 

13th October 21: — A detachment of the Dorset 
regiment from Perintalmanna engaged the rebels on 
Melattur road killing 12: our casualties two wounded. 
Another detachment of the Dorset Regiment from 
Mambad surprised the rebels lying in ambush inflicting 
casualties. Rebels two miles off 'Mannarghat have 



43 

surrendered 40 swords. ' Small party of rebels raided 
Manjeri last night inflicting some casualties. 

16th October, '21 : — Some rebels entered Nilambur 
and fired shots at 4 P. M. Seethi Koya Tangal is active 
near Mannarghat and has destroyed a bridge three miles 
west of that place. Kunhamad Haji is reported to be 
still in the vicinity of Pandicad. Nellicut Bridge is 
destroyed. A reconnoitring party from Manjeri was 
fired on by the rebels, the fire was returned and two 
rebels were killed. 

18th October, '21 : — Rebels are reported to be 
committing murders at Chennangalur, Poolakode and 
Pannikode. 

20th October, '21: — A detachment of the Gurkhas 
left Kpndotti to drive rebel bands, reported at Morayur 
towards Manjeri, where Dorsets, Leinsters. and armoured 1 
cars had proceeded. About 100 rebels attacked the 
Gurkhas near Morayur. The Gurkhas-charged with 
their kukris. Forty-five rebel bodies were counted. 
The Gurkha casualties were three: some firearms and 
swords were captured. 

20th October, '21 : — The Dorsets inflicted 30 casual- 
ties and the armoured cars one casualty on the rebels. 

22nd October, '21 :— The Chin Kachin Battalion, 
carried out local reconnaisances, followed by an oper- 
ation near Wandur on the 23rd, in which the rebels 
suffered five casualties. Chembrasseri Tangal was last 
reported in the vicinity of Melattur and is now located 
north of Mannarghat. The rebels ;were active is the 



44 

vicinity o£ Kottakkal< on' the. 23rd' Instant and a large 
band is reported to be near Areakode. Thirteen 
firearms, 9 swords, and 300 rounds of '303 ammunition 
were captured in the engagement of the 20th instant. 

25th October, '21:— The Chiri Kachin Battalion 
from Nilambur surrounded a house on the Kallikavu 
Road this morning, inflicting casualties and destroying 
rice which could not be moved. A large gang was 
reported the previous night four miles north-west of 
Malappuram. Operations were undertaken against them 
by> the Dorsets, the artillery and the armoured cars. 
The enemy were met in the jungles west of Melmuri, 
opposing our troops there and in the houses, refusing 
to come out when ordered to surrender and offering 
continued and determined opposition, resulting in 240 
rebel casualties. 

27th October, '21 :— The platoon of Chin Kachins 
frbm Edavanna crossed the river Chaliyar and meeting 
the rebels near Urangattri, killed 36 and captured 
4 firearms and 15 swords. Our casualties were one 
Gurkha Officer killed, 2 Indian Other ranks wounded. 

The garrison at Perintalmanna, reports that, rebels 
100 . strong near Velambur have destroyed bridges at 
Pallikuth' 

28th October, '21 :— Latest reports place Chem bras- 
sed Tangal with 3,000 rebels in the vicinity of Alanallur 
and Tiruvazhakunnu. A moveable column of. the 
Suffolks visited AlanaUur and Velliajicheri and' returned 



45 

to Mannarghat; to-day, having Seen only a few small 
parties of rebels. 

29th October, '21 :— A party of Chin Kachins 
surprised Kottampara Uanitari, one of Variakunnath 
Kunhamad Haji's most notorious and obnoxious 
lieutenants, at day-break in his newly built house at 
Kakkode, a few miles from Nilambur. Immediately, the 
troops were sighted, petards were fired, off and proved tq 
be the signal fpr Unnithari's braves to assemble, which 
was of course exactly what the Kachins wanted. They 
greeted the swarms by a wholesome deluge of lead and 
Unnithari fell, with, it is said, over a 100 of his band. 

29th October, '21 :— The Dorsets from Perintal- 
manna inflicted 46 casualties on the. rebels near 
Mankata. A whole company of the Dorsets from 
Manjeri surrounded, a small rebel band, inflicting 6 
casualties. Several other casualties were carried away 
by the rebels. The Leinsters engaged ; a small band near 
Kottakkal inflicting 4 casualties. 

30th October, '21 :— A detachment of Special Police 
were attacked by the rebels hear Chevayur, near Calicut, 
Twenty-six rebels were killed and two firearms captured; 
The Police casualties were one Indian rank killed and 
one British Officer and 6 Indian ranks wounded; 
Detachments of Special Police visited Tamarasseri and 
Cherukolathur. 

3rd November, '21 : — Chin Cachins operating from 
Wandur had an engagement with rebels near Chembras- 
fceri, inflicting 8 known 1 Arid ottier probable casualties! 



46 

Same regiment carried out reconnaissances south and 
south-west from Areakode to-day. Rebel concentration 
still' reported near Chembrasseri. Auxiliary Police 
carried out reconnaissance in Kuhnamangalam area. 

5th November, '21:— A detachment of the 64th 
Pioneers, while engaged in clearing the Manjeri- Areakode 
road, inflicted 6 casualties on the rebels. In yesterday's 
operation against the rebels at Pappinipra south-west of 
Manjeri, the Dorsets, armoured cars, and Pack Artillery 
killed 33 Moplah rebels; 4 firearms and 15 swords were 
also captured. 

6th November, '21 : — A force of Military Police 
under Subadar Ahmad Baig engaged a considerable 
rebel band at Neeralakumuku on the Chathamangalam 
Road about 18 miles north-east of Calicut, inflicting 
several casualties. Naick Kunhambu received bullet 
wounds in his shoulder and leg and a Nair private was 
also wounded. The rebels fired from trenches. 

7th November, '21 : — The following numbers of 
rebels have signified their submission: 300 from Anaka- 
yam, 400 from Kuttilangadi and 200 from Melmuri. 
Overtures are also being received from Chappanangadi, 
Chengattur, Panga and Pandalur. 

£.. 8th November, '21 : — Two companies of the Special 
Police crossed ferry 2 miles south-east of Tamarasseri 
to-day, moving, southwards. Crossing was opposed by 
rebels of whom 3 were killed. Our casualties nil. 
Three more rebels were killed as a result of small opera* 



47 

tion carried out by the Dorsets in the direction of Velur 
on the 6th. 

9th November, '21:— Chin Kachins operating from 
Areakode visited Pannikode. A detachment of the same 
Unit raided rebel paddy store at Kottarakkat and brought 
in 20,000 paras (measures) of paddy to Nilambur. 

A company of the 83rd Walajah Light infantry 
returned to Tirur after three days reconnaissance in the 
vicinity of Kolathur, during which 5 rebels were killed 
and 21 captured. 

l/39th Gharwalis detrained at Calicut yesterday. ' 

11th November, '21: — The rebels attempted raid' 
on the Moplah refugees at Nilambur but were driven off, 
6 were killed. One refugee was killed: another attack 
expected. The Special Police advancing from Tamaras- 
seri via Kondotti reached Omasseri and met opposition 
in the dense jungle, but reached the ' road near Chatha- 
mangalam. Eleven rebels killed ; Police loss one man 
killed, one officer and 1 men slightly wounded. 2/8th 
Gurkhas moving east from Kunnamangalam via Chatha- 
mangalam killed 8 rebels including the murderef of 
Hindus at Pulakkod : one rebel was captured. Gurkhas 
sustained no casualties. 

The Special Police operating in the vicinity of 
Malayamrha killed 6 rebels and wounded others who 
escaped. The Police casualties were one Indian Officer 
and Indian other ranks slightly wounded. The Police 
operating from Feroke chased rebels from Vengara and 
Tirurangadi, who had been raiding Tenhipalam. Eight 



48 

rebel* skilled. "The Doxsets and Leinsters operated 
against rebel bands near Cherur, Oorakam, Melmuri and 
Mattat&ur. The troops from Pandikkad and Wandur 
co-operated against Ghembrasseri, killing (our rebels, 
Rebels dispersed torxvards Nilambur, The l/39tb Ghar- 
walis and Jthe 2/8te Gurkhas commenced drive to-day 
from Jjne .J^unpamangsdam, Karasaeri towards Beypore 
$iver, RebeJ^ see,ri crossing nprtb jbank fleypqre river 
tp sowth near Ijfohupararnba. 

14th November, '21 :— At 5-30 this morning, the 
Pandjcad Post held; by one 'Company -of the 2/8th 
Gurkhas, was heavily attacked <by Mdplahs^ estimated 
at about ^,00P, 56 rebels svpceeded in penetrating the 
Post, all qf whom: were killed. Total number of enemy 
killed. ,230, r xin^ pr^sone? capfcured. Our .casualties; one 
Pr$sh. .Qffieer t .severely wounded since diedrCapt. 
Av^iEl(oy'the^/8tb ; Guj;khas.. Three, other ranks killed 
and, 34. wounded,,: mostly slightly. The: Civil Post 
^apter of Pandicad iwas murdered, i Ten guns and 199 
knivesj Ayef e jcapjjuxed. — 

i Kuruya Amsom has, now definitely surrendered. 
Indiannyr and ,Pqnrna& Amsoms bptb Deaf Kottakkal 
have sent in petitions to submit. - • > 

J.Sth„ November, '21 :— One Hundred rebels were 
killed, in jthe ( second phase^ of operations in Malabar. 
Several firearms have been Raptured, but the total is not 
yet known. Tbe oply incident was an attack on a 
party of the J/39th Gharwalis by some \% rebels, all of 
whom were kilted after band to band fight in the thick 



49 

jungles. Our casualties were two other ranks killed and 
3 wounded, all of whom were amongst the l/39th 
Gharwalis. 

18th November, '21: — The total result of operations 
from 11th to 18th, rebel known casualties killed 233, 
prisoners 34, firearms captured 31. 

19th November, '21: — Troops from Perintalmanna 
raided Kakkut near Perintalmanna, where rebels were 
reported to return at night. Four rebels were killed and 
50 captured, several of whom were known criminals. 
The Burma Battalion operating from Wandur attacked 
a party of rebels on Wandur-Kalikavu Road, killing ten, 
capturing 6 firearms and four swords. This road is 
blocked by felled trees between 10th and 12th 
milestone. 

20th November, '21: — The Auxiliary Police carried 
out punitive operations between 15th and 18th in 
Manasseri area. Four rebels were killed and one 
firearm was captured. Kachins from Nilambur raided 
rebel paddy store 3 miles east of Nilambur, and brought 
in 35,000 paras (measure) of paddy and 20 head of cattle. 
Small bands of rebels reported to have broken back west- 
wards near Trikkalangode north of Manjeri : remainder 
still east of Nilambur, Edavanna and Manjeri road. 

27th November, '21:— Detachment of 2/9th Gurkhas 
from Perintalmanna operated against Pulamanthol, 
killing ten and capturing ten rebels yesterday. 

2Sth November, '21 : — Troops moving to the areas 
allotted to them after conclusion of drive. Detachment 

7 



2/9th Gurkhas operating from .Perintalmanna raided 
Panniyakurrissi, killing $ rebels. . 50Q rebels reported to 
have collected about Areakode. 

29th November, '21 :— : pour rebels were killed and 
3 wounded by small detachment of 2/8th Gurkhas. 
Two were captured ty .Signal station ,at Ottupara. 
Company of Special Police captured 12 rebels, members 
of Kalpakancheri gang, near Tenalnr. 

30th November, '21 :— Company of Special Police 
operating from Nannambra inflicted 9 casualties on 
Tirurangadi band. Two rebels were killed and one 
captured by Police operating from Nilambur yesterday. 
Six casualties also inflicted .by Special Police operating 
from Chelambra. 

1st December, 21: — Suffolks and Company, 83rd 
[W. L. I., carried ;Out successful operations yesterday 
against Vengara and Cherur ^rea. Thirty-six .rebels 
wepe killed .and 6 captured. Company ,B3rd ,now at 
iTirurangadi. A company of Auxiliary Police killed 3 
rebels near 5th milestone, Timrangadi-Feroke Road. • 

3rd December, '21 ;— A party of Special Police 
operating about Kalpakancheri killed ,4 and captured 
9 .rebels. Another company of Special JPolice killed 

7 rebels near ^heUrabra. The 2/8th ( G:nrkhas filled 

8 rebels and captured one firearra_and four swords near 
Tuyoor. 

Moplahs from 8 Amsoms with Melattur as the centre 
and Vettatur as the most southerly point, are surrender- 
ing in large numbers. -The total surrenders yesterday 



51- 

and to-day were 1,804 men with, one firearm and 764 
knives: 310 also surrendered around Perintalmanna. 

4th December; '21 :— The Chirt Kachins reconnoitred 
from Nilambur and Kalikavu towards each other' and 
sent a detachment to Wandiir via Amarambalarn, 
resulting in 4 rebels" killed, threS swords captured and 
80,000 paras of paddy brought in. Also 1,500 rebels 
have surrendered at Areakode, handing' in 3 swords. 
Numerous rebels desirous of submitting are reported 
along the south bank of the Beypore River, between 
Areakode and Edavanna and 525 with 9 swords sub- 
mitted at Mannarghat on Saturday. 

5th Decemberj '21: — l/39th Gharwalis killed one, 
captured • 2 rebels and two firearms. Total rebels' 
surrendered in Mannarghat area now 2,400. 500 with 
206 swords surrendered near Melattur. Total this area 
now 2,300 and 850 swords. 

6th December, '21 : — Special Police killed 4 rebels 
near Veannakbd: 2/8th Gurkhas killed two rebels near 
Chembrasseri. Total ' surrendered ! to' 2/8th Gurkhas at 
Melattur to date 2756 men, 4 firearms, and : 1122 swords. 
39 men with 6 swords 'surrendered at Vilayur. 

7th December, '21 : — Definite areas have now been 
allotted to different battalions, so as to cover the whole 
of the affected area. Some minor engagements with the 
rebels have taken place and surrenders continue from 
many parts of the area, hitherto chiefly affected, while 
there"are*~sighs^hat~the chief rebel leaders are' becoming 



52 

dissatisfied with the progress of affairs near Melattur. 
A large body of Moplahs have surrendered and handed 
in 250 swords and Areakode, which a few weeks ago 
was an important rebel centre, is now displaying numbers 
of white flags. The chief gangs still remain to be dealt 
with, but it seems probable that these will decrease in 
size as time goes on. The main desideratum at present, 
apart from the capture of leaders, is to restore confidence 
in the non-rebel population and to induce them to assist 
in the apprehension of offenders and the restoration of 
normal conditions. 

7th December, '21 :— Further surrenders to 2/8th 
Gurkhas at Melattur number 271 men, one firearm, and 
133 swords. 450 men with 46 swords from Pandicad 
Vettakattri, and Chembrasseri surrendered at Pandicad 
on the 6th instant. 228 surrendered at Mannarghat 
and 742 at Perintalmanna. Active rebels bands reported 
north-east of Nilambur and north and south-east of 
Kalikavu. 

9th December, '21 : — Since the conclusion of the 
drive from the north-west to the south-east of the 
affected area, there have been no major encounters, but 
minor ones have resulted in the following casualties to 
rebels, without casualties to ourselves — 133 killed, 3 
wounded and 45 captured. Since the conclusion of the 
drive, surrenders of rebels are coming in freely and many 
weapons are being handed in. Although some of the 
chief rebel leaders have not yet been accounted for, 
larger gangs have been broken up and scattered. Small 



53 

gangs remain to be dealt with, together with a certain 
number of irreconcilables. As a consequence of the 
drive, it may be said that the general situation is 
decidedly better. The confidence of the populace is 
being restored and that of the rebels is deteriorating. 
Small rebel gangs which remain are being hunted day 
and night, but are difficult to dispose of quickly, as they 
are scattered throughout the District and avoid encoun- 
ters with the troops as much as possible. Now that the 
drive has been concluded, the troops and Special Police 
are re-allotted to areas for work, and it is hoped by this 
means to account for the remaining rebels. 

Within the last fortnight, there has, therefore, been 
a great increase in the number of surrenders. Those 
reported during the fortnight, excluding the involuntary 
raptures, total 3,769 men and 1,574 weapons, the latter 
being practically all swords and knives. These surrend- 
ers have not been confined to one or two localities, but 
have occured at various points wide-apart in the affected 
area. 

9th December, '21 :— 750 rebels with 254 swords 
have surrendered to 2/9th Gurkhas at Melattur on the 
7th instant. l/39th Gharwalis report white flags shown 
along Chaliyar River from Areakode to Cheruvadi 
inclusive. All houses in Chikod also showing flags. 
One member of Pannikode gang killed. Gang now 
moved northwards. 2/9th Gurkhas captured 13 rebels 
at Nilambur and killed one north of Pottasseri. 3/70th 



54 

Rachitis Surprised a' rebel sentry group; kitting one and 
capturing* 2f swords;. 

3/70th" Kachins killed' 35 rebels, captured 20 
firearms- arid 15 swords- at' Kalamala. Our casualties 
3 slightly wounded." Detachment 2/9lh Gurkhas at 
Mankada killed 1 14 rebels' near that place. Surrenders 
continue about 'Melattur and' Mannarghat. 

Situation 1 during the week-ending 12th December, 
'2lJ-^ftie Gurkhas; the Suffolks and the Special Police 
have all had successful encounters with the rebels during 
the 'last 1 few days and 1 have killed about 200 besides 
taking some prisoners and a number of weapons includ- 
ing firearms. In the Suffolks engagements the enemy 
attacked in a desperate fashion and '91 were killed. The 
principal leaders, with a diminishing number of followers, 
still remain to be dealt with, but their position is 
becoming desperate, and there are increasing signs that 
the' rebellion is collapsing, so far at least,, as active 
resistance is concerned. The fighting gangs are penned 
in" the Kills behind Mannarghat Road, from Kalikavu to 
Nilambur and in the south-east of Calicut Taluk. Surren- 
ders continue and though the number of firearms handed 
ia was. not 'very great, there' can be no- doubt that the 
moral effect is considerable. The total number of names' 
now-recorded comes to about 27^500. ' 

13tlrDecember,"2i : — Nine amsoms round Tiruran- 
gftdi 1 totalling 2,400 men - have sent in petitions to 
surrender. More are following^ Amsoms round Melattur 
handed insix firearms' and' 157 'swords yesterday. 



X4th December, '21:T-2/9th .Gurkhas r <?arrjed out 
pper^tions against .Seethikoya Tangal's batid ip JiiJIs. 
east. of Mannarghat yesterday. 21 rebels killed and the 
remainder escaped, detachment 2/9th Gurkhas opera- 
ting from Per jntalmanna killed 7 , rebels at Amminikad* 
Total surrenders to 3/70th Kacjiins ,at Wandur to date 
number 1,237, ,297 rebels with 5 firearms have ,surrep- 
dered.at Areakode. 

Situation, week-ending lSt^h (December, \2\ -:— ~Tba 
main fighting gangs remain in jthe jhijl , areas, mentioned 
in the Ia^t , weekly summary. They had dwindled further 
and are still more scattered. The difficulty in getting at 
them has not diminished. Put their .food supplies have 
been, still .further .restricted. T^he raid at Pandalurjn 
the Nilgr^s was probably for food and ,arms. (This gang 
apparently returned to Njlambur area, (and -have since 
moved west and. north of the Beypore River. ,Qparations 
in the Tirurangadi Area have left only very small groups, 
of armed rebels. Dacoities continue in ,the Kalpakan- 
cheri and Tirur areas. Surrenders have r cqntinued in all 
parts and a. rather large proportion of arms were brought, 
in. . Conditions in the surrendering amsoms aije impro- 
ving and there, have .been indications .of r^ind,us. and. 
Moplahs cpmbinmg ,to repist looting .and to help in the 
capture of individuals, but the .restoration of public, 
confidence wjll be slow till all the .known leaders have 
been acounted for, and this will take time, owing to jthe 
nature of the country where {hey nqw are. 



56 

Situation during week-ending 25th December, *21 :— 
Chembrasseri and Seethi Koya Tangals have surrendered 
and the majority of their gangs have either come in or 
been accounted for. The remnants joined other fighting 
gangs, the chief of which under Kunhamad Haji, Moideen 
Haji and Konnara Tangal still remain in hills in Nilam- 
bur and Areakode areas and north of the river. These 
gangs are being watched by the Military and the Police, 
but they are still elusive and capable of concentrating in 
considerable numbers in WestErnad. Police operations 
have still further reduced the rebels and dacoits and 
many important arrests were made during the week. 
Surrenders have been made in numbers in nearly all 
amsoms and more guns were brought in. Normal 
conditions now extend to the whole area, but the land- 
lords are slow to give lead in the exhibition of confidence. 
Most amsoms are now fit for refugees to return, and it is 
desirable on all grounds that their return should not be 
delayed. 

Situation for the week-ending January 1st, 1922: — 
Variankunnath Kunhamad Haji's gang has been reduced 
to about 80 men who are tired and hungry. They were 
on Pandalur Hills and just escaped capture on 30th Dec. 
Kutti Moideen Haji and Konnara Tangal are still north 
of Beypore river, in the neighbourhood of Pannikode. 
There has been a considerable number of surrenders ahd 
arrests of dangerous criminals and rebel leaders, and they 
are being tried by CourtMartial, but large numbers of 
prisoners still remain to be tried. Conditions generally 



continue to show steady improvement. Refugees are 
beginning to return in large numbers. 

7th January, '21 : — Kunhamad Haji with 21 fol- 
lowers, one. 303 rifle, 10 police rifles, and four other 
B. L. firearms were captured by a specially organised 
Police Force under the leader-ship of Subadar Gopala 
Menon and Sub-Inspector Ramanatha Iyer at Chokad 
yesterday. 

A detachment of l/39th Gharwalis pursuing the 
rebels under Moideen Kutti Haji killed 19 and wounded 
3 rebels near Morayur. 

20th January, '22: — Variankunnath Kunhamad 
Haji and six other Moplahs who were charged with 
waging war and tried by a Military court, were shot at 
Malappuram to-day. 

The capture of the " Khilafat King ", Varian 
Kunnath Kunhamad Haji, marked the collapse of the 
rebellion. " There are only two bands of active rebels 
left to be dealt with. They are under the leadership of 
two minor leaders, Konnara Tangal and Moideen Kutty 
Haji. They are being vigorously pursued and are 
decreasing in numbers owing to surrenders and casualties. 
Various detachments of troops have already left the area 
and it is hoped that the two battalions will have left by 
the 25th instant, and the force will be reduced to appro- 
ximately peace garrison by the middle of next month. 
VThe total approximate rebel casualties up to date are 
2,266 killed, 1,615 wounded and 5,688 captured and 
38,256 surrenders. (Madras Mail Jan. 23rd '22). 
* 8 



58 

There remained the foHowjng leaders and their 
followers to be accounted for : — 

I* Abdul Haji and his followers took refuge in a 
Hindu temple and declared intention 6f fighting. All 
were killed by the Suffolks, who had one man seriously 
wpunded, (Press Com. Jan. 27th, '22.) 

2. Koyammu Haji and his brother were arrested by 
the Police on 30th January, 1922. 

3. Abu Bocker Musaliar was arrested at a Railway 
Station while attempting to escape from Malabar. (Press 
Com., 30th Jan., '22.) 

4. Karat Moideen Kutti Haji captured near 
Pookotur. (Press Com., Feb. 2nd, '22.) 

The only rebel leader still at large and in hiding 
was Konnara Tangal, who eluded the vigilance of the 
police until 25th August, 1922, when he was arrested at 
Koothuparamba, North Malabar, a year and five days 
after the commencement of the rebellion. 
V^' It is impossible, in the absence of a census of^ the 
rebel area, to state the number of persons who were 
killed by die rebels, " but the number of persons among 
the civil population is believed to be between 500 and 
600 " according to the information given by Government. 
"No statistics have been compiled regarding the num- 
ber of women and children among the persons killed." 
(Madras Mail 14th November *22). 

Military ragn^HVfl were 24 killed and 103 wounded. 
Th e Police casualties were 24 killed and 29 wounded. 
Legislative Council Interpellations, Nov. 15th 1922). 



59 

Our thanks are due to all those who were employed 
in the suppression of the rebellion and the Zamorin Raja 
of Calicut who presided at a Conference held at Calicut 
on the 19th Feb. '23 expressed the sentiments of the 
Malabar public in the following terms : — 

"The troops in the field and outside, who are with- 
drawn from it, deserve our heartiest thanks and congra- 
tulations, I believe that a sufficient number of them 
will remain permanently with us to .look after our safety. 
Innumerable difficulties had to be faced by them, often- 
times at the sacrifice of valuable lives. We mourn for 
the dead among them, aud also among the Police Force. 
We sympathise with their bereaved families. Our loyal 
thanks must go to the Government and its officers, high 
and low, who haye been engaged in the task of restoring 
law and order." 

Note. — The information regarding Military movements 
consists of quotations from 1, Official Review, Simla 
dated 8th Sept. '21 and Press communiques published 
in the Madras Mail and 3. Judgement in Kunhi 
Kadir's case No. 4/21 on the file of the Special 
Tribunal, Calicut. 

The dates of communiques given in this chapter do not 
always correspond to the dates on which the events 
actually took place. 



MARTIAL LAW. 



" It is the fundamental duty of the Government to 
maintain order. Ordinarily the execution of this duty 
rests upon the Civil Authorities. They have the power 
to disperse unlawful assemblies and suppress rioting and 
disturbance. If their force is insufficient for this purpose 
it is their duty to call, in Military assistance, and in these 
circumstances it is the duty of the Military to give the 
assistance demanded. If the Civil authorities are unable 
with such Military aid as may be available to maintain 
or restore order, it then becomes the duty of the Military 
Officer, as the direct representative of H. M. The King 1 - 
Emperor, to restore law and order. When this state of 
things is reached, a state of Martial Law is said to 
exist. 

While on the one hand the authorities on the spot 
are transgressing their duty if there is an unnecessary 
appeal for Military assistance, or if there is an unnecessary 
abdication of their powers, they are still more seriously 
trangressing their duty if there is a failure to call for 
military assistance when necessary, or a failure to recog- 
nise that the situation is beyond their power to control 
even with military assistance. la both these ta&tters the 



61 

responsible officer on the spot must act according to the 
best information which is available to him. 

In the present instance it would appear that in the 
opinion of the District Magistrate the cutting of tele- 
graph wires, the blocking of roads, the destruction of 
railways and the murders, looting and rioting which took 
place at Tirurangadi to his knowledge and were credibly 
reported to have taken place elsewhere, constituted a 
situation which the. Civil authorities were powerless to 
control, even with the help of such Military Force as 
were available. The Ordinance notified by the Govern- 
ment of India on August 26 is incidentally a notification 
that an emergency involving the necessity for the recog- 
nition of Martial Law existed in Malabar from August 
19, 1921" (Publicity Bureau, Madras Mail dated 
Aug. 31, 1921). 

The rebellion broke out on 20th August, Martial 
Law was passed on 26th August, and proclaimed on 29th 
August, 1921. The several Ordinances passed in conne- 
ction with the rebellion are detailed below : — 

ORDINANCES. 

1. Ordinance II of 1921 was passed by the Govern- 
ment of India on 26th August 1921. This provides for 
the proclamation of Martial Law to empower Military 
Authorities to make regulations and issue order to 
provide for the public safety and the maintenance and 
restoration of order, to authorise the trial of certain 



6$ 

offfences by Special courts' constituted under this Ordis* 
ance and to provide lor other matters connected with the 
administration of Martial Law. 

2'. Proclamation by the Military Commander. 
Martial Law Area. The area of Calicut, Ernad, Walluva- 
nad^.Paonanii Kornmbranad and- Wynad Taluks is now 
under Martial: Law and I have been appointed by 
Superior Military Authority to command troops and 
administer' Martial Law therein. Calicut 29th August '2 1 . 

(Sd.) E. T. Humphreys, Colonel. 

3. Martial Law (Supplementary) Ordinance III of 
1921 constituting a Special Tribunal of three persons, a 
President and two members, for the trial of offences 
under the Martial L&w. [Vide proclamation by the 
District Magistrate dated 12th Sept. 1921). 

4. Martial Law (Military Courts) Ordinance Np. IV 
qf 192) for the constitution of Military Courts for the 
tria) of certain Offences committed in any area in which 
Martial Law is in fprce (passed by Government on 15th 
October 1921). 

5. Martial Law (Special Magistrates) Ordinance V 
of ,1921; to provide for the trial by Special Magistrates of 
certain offences committed in the. area in which Martial 
Law is in force, (passed on 11th Nov. 1921). 

6. Malabar (Restoration of order) Ordinance No. I 
of '• 1 922 to provide for the speedy trial ' of certain offences- 
committed during the period while Martial Law was in 



*3 

force or arising out of the circumstances which necessita- 
ted the enforcement or continuance of Martial Law and 
also to enable the local Government to take certain steps 
for the protection of law-abiding citizens and for the 
restoration and maintenance of order in those areas, 
(passed on the 25th Feb. 1922). 

Martial Law withdrawn from this day (25th Feb. 
1922). 

Ordinances Nos.II, III, IV, and V of 1921 repealed. 

The area to which restoration of Order Ordinance is 
applicable,- Walluvanad, Ponnani, Ernad and Calicut. 

8. Malabar (Completion of Trials) Ordinance No. Ill 
of 1922 to provide for the trial of certain persons whose 
trials have commenced before or who are awaiting trial by 
the courts constituted under the Malabar Restoration of 
Order Ordinance 1922 and for the disposal of appeals 
pending under that Ordinance, (passed on 19th August 
1922.) 

9. Act I of 1923 (Madras), The Malabar (completion 
of trials) Act, 1922: to provide for the speedy trial of 
certain classes of offenders who took part in the Moplah 
rebellion in Malabar during 1921—22 and for the due 
execution of sentences and other orders passed by Special 
Courts under the Malabar (completion of trials) Ordi- 
nance, 1922, after they have ceased to exist. . (Assented 
to by the Governor on 4th January 1923 and by the 
Governor-General on 17th January 1923). This Act is 
now in force. 



64 

SUSPENSION OF SENTENCE. 
The Hon'ble Mr. A. R. Knapp, I. C. S., C. S. I., 

Special Commissioner for Malabar affairs, issued the 
following proclamation on 20th March 1922 providing 
ffor the Suspension of sentences passed under the above 
Ordinances in the circumstances noted therein : — 

" A large number of persons have already been arres- 
ted and convicted of murder, arson, dacoity and other 
crimes committed during the course of the Moplah 
rebellion and there are still many cases of similar crimes 
under investigation by the Police. Among the persons 
who have not been arrested are many who have been 
ring-leaders in crime or against whom several offences 
are charged : their cases will be dealt with by the courts 
in the ordinary course. But there are others who are 
accused of participation in crime otherwise as leaders or 
against whom only isolated offences are charged. These, 
it is not necessary, to treat as confirmed criminals; but 
such offenders cannot escape punishment which they 
have justly deserved and all against whom complaints 
have been made must be prosecuted. 

But the Government are unwilling to remove from 
their Homes and imprison any larger portion of the 
Moplah population than is absolutely necessary for the 
peace of the District It is desirable rather that they 
should as* quickly as possible resume their ordinary avo- 
cations and live in amity with their neighbours. When- 
ever therefore it appears that an offender how realises 
and regrets the crime which he has committed and is 



prepared by his, future conduct to show his repentance, 
the Government propose to give him an opportunity of 
escaping the term of imprisonment! which may have been 
imposed upon him. Persons selected for this leniency 
will have their sentence of imprisonment suspended so 
long as they remain of good behaviour, and pay punctu- 
ally the fine which the court has ordered. Such fines 
will be recovered in instalments. Should any instalment 
not be paid at the proper time or should the offenders" 
conduct be in any way unsatisfactory, he will be liable to 
be sent to jail at once without further trial to serve his 
sentence of imprisonment. 

This concession will not bd extended to all, but only 
to those who by their present behaviour and by their 
readiness to surrender themselves for trial when called 
upon, show that they deserve this lenient : treatment." 
{West Coast Spectator, dated 23rd March 1922). 

The above decision has been approved by the Go- 
vernment of Madras. 

The object of the suspension of sentences is explain- 
ed by the Hon'ble A. R. Knapp, in his report of 30th 
March, 1922:— < 

" It has been decided that all fines and confiscations 
of property ordered by the courts in cases arising out 
of the rebellion will be set apart to be given as an act 
of grace to those who have suffered from the rebellion. 
The amount of fines hitherto imposed has not been 
very considerable; the latest total reported to me is 

9 



Rsi 5,000. But tlie amount available to Be thus given in 

i> ylinn.'-ionr n xl; ; ]>rl •■•/!•, r-t •■-•.. tw ?..iiT-n-'-i . i ' j 

compensation will be greatly enhanced, if success attends 
tne scheme 'for'wnicn I nave 'recently obtained sanction of 
the Government, tinder this a large number of Moplahs 
who are accused of having participated in a minor degree 
in crimes committed during the rebellion will be brought 

to trial, and if convicted will have their sentence of 

.Jii-'ir.iUMii -.■■.'■ Mi.'nrfc'. . .?' i-r"'(i1;i" lij ■■•■/■ i ... ' 

imprisonment suspended on condition that they will re- 
main of good behaviour and pay punctually the fine which 
will be imposed upon them and for which they will 
be given time to pay. My present expectation is that 
the fines thus realised will provide a fund which will go 
along Way to niedt the loss actually suffered. I have 
received a large nurhber of claims for compensation. 
Th'eir total at present amounts to Rs. 21 lakhs, but for 
this "Rs> 7 lakhs represent, claims put in by Moplaha 
many of whBibi are 'probably rebels. Of the balance a 
great many claims are almost certainly exaggerated." 
(West Coast Spectator, dated, May 18th, 1922). 

DETAILS 'op fioSyiCTftH, '8rj8PEksi6ii 1Kb 'pihes 

1. Number of persons convicted of 
offences connected with the Rebel- 
lion up to the end of Oct. '22. ... 8,588 

2. Number of persons dealt with 
undei*' suspension dt sentence 

scheme .:. ... ... 9,98*4 

3« Number of pers'ons'pendihg trial.. 1 1,W4 



67 

4. Fines imposed by the end of Octo- 
ber 1922 ... ... ... Rs. 9,94,042 

5. Fines paid by the end, of October 

1922 ... ... ... Rs. 1,33,807 

Note : — Items 1 and 2 are mutually exclusive. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE MALABAR POLICE. 



A brief history of the system that existed in this 
District for the maintenance of law and order prior to the 
formation of the regular Police Force under Act XXIV 
of 1859, will be interesting reading and is therefore intro- 
duced into this chapter which deals with the conduct of 
the Malabar Police during the rebellion. 

" In ancient times the Naduvazhis* and Desavazhis? 
supported by their armed Nayar retainers maintained law 
and order. With the Mohammedan invasion the system 
broke down. Tippu's brutal methods of obtaining 
converts to Islam, which drove the Rajas and thousands 
of their principal adherents out of their country, broke 
up social organism, and engendered a fierce and abiding 
hatred between Hindu and Mohammedan; and in 1792, 
when the British took over Malabar, this animosity had 
reached a dangerous height, and the foundations of law 
and order had been undermined. South Malabar was in 
particular terrorised by bands of marauding Moplahs who 
found a secure retreat in the jungles of Ernad and 
Walluvanad. The military held the country for a tkne ; 

*N»daya«bis= Chieftain of a country or Nadu. 
fDwaraxbis* Chief taiu of a waller traot of country; 



'69 



but were gradually drafted out of Malabar to prosecute 
the campaign against Tippu, which ended with the fall 
of Scripgapatam, and their departure rendered necessary 
the organisation of Police. To overawe the Moplahs, 
Nayar Sibbandi corps were raised to serve under their 
native chieftains, and by the end of the 18th century a 
more regular Police force had been established in each of 
the Collectorates into which the district was then divided. 
In the Collectorate of Angadipuram, to take a single 
instance, which included Vellatiri, Cheranad, Vettathnad 
and Parappanad, the establishment of Police in 1800 
consisted of two Jemadars, eight daffadars and 277 
kolkars, besides detachments of Sibbandi corps stations 
at various places in the division. In 1801 the irregular 
and undisciplined Sibbandi corps were disbanded, and 
their place was taken by a force of 500 armed Police 
raised by Captain Watson, mainly for the purpose of 
collecting the revenue. In the troublous times of the 
Pychy rebellion this force, which then numbered 1200, 
did conspicuous service. Not only did they clear the 
low country of the small bands of rebels which infested 
it, but under Mr. Baber they were mainly instrumental 
in bringing the Raja to bay and in stamping out the 
rebellion. This force was disbanded about 1810, and 
since that date the Malabar Police has followed normal 
lines of development. The existing establishment of 
" Police Daroghas and Tanahdars " was abolished by- 
regulation II of 1816, and a system was introduced 
piously believed to be founded upon the "ancient usages 



7P 
of the country." Under the general control of the zillah 

■V :■■;- :• ' f \ , . I' > ' i^' , • V ' ••. . ■•■-.J 

magistrate and pis assistants, the. Adhigan was the head 
of the village Police, the Ta^sildar of the taluk Police, 
and, amins, were appointed to discharge Police duties in 
important towns. A curious feature of the system was 
that no special establishment of constables existed. 
Police duties were discharged, by the ordinary revenue 
peon, and about 1823 a very common response to a 
request for an escort for prisoners was that the peons 
were 'too busy with the revenue survey to be spared.' 
The. Mpplah outbreaks which liegan in 1856 soon revealed 
the inadequacy of the system. The establishment of a 
local Police corps consisting of 31 native officers, two 
buglers, and 150 men under the command of two military 
officers was sanctioned by the Government of India in 
1854, but the murder of Mr.< Conolly in 1855 once more 
exposed the utter inefficiency of the Police. The assasins 
after escape from Jail wandered about the District for 
some weeks, and, though it was a matter of common 
knowledge that they were contemplating some crime, the 
Tahsildars took no notice of them, and made no effort to 
inform one another of the movement. The ease with 
which the Collector of Malabar had been murdered was 
a' strong argument for the reform of the Police which 
was then under discussion: and a few years later the 
present Police force was organised under Act XXIV of 
1859." (Malabar Gazeteer.) 

Since then, the Malabar public looked to the PoHce 
lotos; lot, the, preserVajion , ; gf, peace, in. the, country, and 



71 

under normal conditions they 'justified their Existence 1 . 
The conditions Decarne abnormal with the breaking' out 
of the rebellion and the Police force was fourid'to fee 
incapable of coping with the situation. Police Stations 
were raided : there was practically no resistance and all 
arms were taken away by the rebels: the 'conduct of the 
Police has been severely criticised by the public, and the 
question has been asked whether 'at 'the 'outbreak of the 
rebellion when the Moplahs advanced without fire- 
arms, a serieus resistance would not have been effective 
at stations where the Police Were in full strength. Trie 
Malabar Police had always a'good reputation for courage, 
in this district, as also, in of!her Districts where they 
were employed : the Special Police Force recruited during 
the rebellion gave a very good account of themselves in 
the encounters with the Mopiah rebfels, arid even nbw a 
detachment of this force has been liken out to the 
Agency Tracts, to suppress the rebellion there. It was 
therefore a shock to find that when the rebels raided the 
Police Stations, the Police were not able to offer any 
resistance. Their conduct is inexplicable, expect on the 
supposition that the small number of Policemen present 
at the station became nervous a{ the sight of the yery 
large number of Moplahs advancing to the attack. It 
was an opportunity to win Kudos at the risk of one's life: 
but none ventured to take the risk : the pity of it 1 

The* conduct of the 'Police during the Martial Law 
regime has been severely criticised in the Press 
(Appx. viii a) and during an interview with the correspon- 



72 

dent of the Madras Mail, Mr. Prabhakaran Thampan 
M. L. C. in suggesting a departmental enquiry made the 
following remarks:- — 

" It is true that during the Martial Law periods 
some of the sub-ordinate Police were abusing their 
powers, yielding to the temptation offered by the chaotic 
and confused state of the country. I will only say that a 
departmental enquiry into the conduct of the Police is 
most advisable and urgently called for, and exemplary 
punishment should be meted out to the guilty. While 
this would have a salutary effect on the Police it would 
also have a soothing effect on the masses. (Madras 
Mail November, 20, 1922). 

The conduct of the Police in connection with some 
of the charges laid before the Special Courts has also 
been . , adversely commented,, upon (Appx. viii b) an d no 
doubt .action wdl be taken- by the authorities in such 
cases. 

'Note: — Since the above was written, the conduct of the 
Police formed the subject of debates before the F^egis- 
lative Council : (Appx. viii C.) it formed aho the 
subject of a resolution at a public meeting at Calicut 
on 10th March '23: (Appx. viii d.) an Inspector of 
Police (Mr: P. K. Madhava Menon) has been dis- 
missed from public service as a result of departmental 
enquiries. (Fort St. George Gazette dated 27-3-'2S) 
and another Inspector of Police (Mr. Neelakhantan 
Nair) has been placed on his trial on a charge of 
extortion. 




A young man who received 18 wounds and 
by jumping into a river. 



CHAPTER V. 

ATROCITIES. 



^ " In point of magnitude, organisation, and the atro- 
cities committed by the rebels, this rising in the Moplah 
country is unparelleled in the history of Malabar, or for 
the matter of that in the history of the whole of India." 
(Madras Mail, November l§th, '21). 

, The history of the Moplah rebellion would be a his- 
tory of the atrocities committed by the;, Moplah rebels 
against the Hindus, and to describe them in detail would 
fill a volume. There is hardly a Hindu in the rebel area 
who has not suffered and a general . idea can be formed 
by a perusal of the memorial submitted by the women of 
Malabar to H. E. The Countess of Reading, an extract 
from which is appended:— 

" May it please your gracious and compassionate 
Ladyship, 

We, the Hindu women of Malabar of varying ranks 
and stations in life who have recently been overwhelmed 
by the tremendous catastrophe known as the Moplah 
rebellion, have taken the liberty to supplicate your Lady- 
ship for sympathy and succour. 

2. Your Ladyship is doubtless aware that though 
our unhappy district has witnessed many Moplah out- 
breaks in the course of the last 100 years, the present 

10 



74 

rebellion Is unexampled In It.- magnitude as ucl! a~. un- 
precedented in its ferocity. But it is possible tint Your 
Ladyship is not fully apprised of all the horrors a ,i 1 
atrocities perpetrated by the feindisliTebds: of the many 
wells and tanks filled up with the mutilati-.d, but often 
only half dead bodies of our nearest and dearest ones 
who refused to abandon the faith of our Fathers; of 
pregnant women cut to pieces' atid left on the ronchide 
and in the jungles, with the unborn lube protruding from 
the mangled cropse ; of our innocent and helpless child- 
ren torn from our arms and done to djp.th before our 
eyes and of oar husbands and fathers tortured, flayed and 
burnt alive ; of our helpless sisters fotcihly carried a - A?y 
from the midst cf kith and kirt and t>i<Lj(.vtc J to every 
shame and outrage which the vile and brutal imagination 
of these inhuman hell hounds could cor.cicve of; 
of thousands of our homesteads reduced to cindei mounds 
out of sheer savagery and a wanton spirit of d<. ^miction »' 
of our places of worship desecrated and destroyed and of 
the images of the diety shamefully insulted Cy putting 
the entrails of slaughtered cows where flower garlands 
used to lie, or else smashed to pieces; of the wholesale 
looting of hard-earned wealth of generations, reducing 
many who were formerly rich and prosperous to publicly 
beg for a pice or two in. the streets of Calicut to bjy ?..!; 
or chilly or betel-leaf, rice being mercifully provided ". 
the various relief agencies. • These arc not fables. 

The wells full of rotting skeletonc, the ruin; ■•■• >^ch 
once were our dear homes, the heaps, cf stents whicb 




Young man who received 18 sword cuts — back. 



75 

once were our places of worshipy-they are still here to 
attest to the truth. The cries of our murdered children 
in their .death agonies r a,re. .stilj, ringing in our ears and 
wilt- Continue to hkunt au* > memory lill ideate fcrings us 
peace. We reHjembe* ho^- driven oufr of our native 
hamlets we wandered Starving and nakea in the jungles 
and forests ; we remember how we choked and stifled our 
babies cries lest the sound should ' betray our 1 ! hiding 
places to bur relentless pursuers. We still vividly realise 
the moral and spiritual agony that thousands of us pass- 
ed through when we were forcibly coriverted into the 
faith professed by these blbodthirsty miscreants ; we still 
have before us i he sig^ht of the ^endurable 1, and life-long 
misery of those-fortunately few-of our most unhappy 
sisters who born and brought up in respectable families 
have been forcibly converted and then married to convict 
coolies. For five long months hot a day' has passed 
without its dread tale of horror to unfold."' 
For details please see appendix ix. 



V f.JUi. 



For endurable in line 13 read unendurable. 



CIMPTpU VI. 

XHILAFJLT KINGS AND 
g^MRNpRS. 

:^V1L. M usaliar, native of Nellikuth Amsam in Ernad 
Taluk, settled .down about fourteen years ago at Tirur- 
angadi as a- religious teacher. He .became a Khilafat 
leader, on the introduction of the Khilafat movement, was 
jpstalled .as khilafat King • on the 22nd August 1921 at 
the • Jamat Mosque,f and issued edicts proclaiming his 
assumption, of office and directing that in future marke- 
fees, ferry and toll revenue belong to the Khilafat Got 
yernment. < On 30th August " AH Raja" and his followers 
were surrounded by British troops j 24 of his followers 
were killed in the fight ; the " Raja " and the remaining 
followers surrendered on the 31st August. He was tried 
by the Special Tribunal, Malabar at Calicut on a charge 
of waging war with H. M. The King-Emperor and on 
2nd November 1921 was sentenced to death, — He enjoy- 
ed a very brief period of sovereignity, — 22nd to 30th 
August uneventful except for the brutal murder of Mr. 
Rowley and Lieut. Johnstone by his followers two days 
before his installation. 

2. Kunhi Kadir, Khilafat Secretary, Tanur, was 
also the Khilafat chief of that station. He was the first 
to go to the rescue of Ali Musaliar at Ururaogadi with 



77 

his followers and having met the troops on the way 
between Tirurangadi and Parappanangadi gave battle. 
He was captured, tried by the Special Tribunal and 
sentenced to be hanged. 

3. Variankunnath Kunhammad Haji, of a family 
of outbreak traditions, as a lad was transported with his 
father for complicity in a previous outbreak ; on his 
return 6 or 7 years ago was not allowed to settle down in 
his native village but after a time he went up to his 
village and started life as a cartman. 

On the introduction of the Khilafat movement he 
joined it and became one of the chief workers ; organised 
Sabhas, and became the guiding spirit of the Khilafat 
in Ernad. On the outbreak of the rebellion he became 
king, celebrated his accession by the murder of Khan 
Bahadur Chekkutti, a Moplah retired Police Inspector, 
who was decapitated while expiring in his wife's arms. 

He styled himself Raja of the Hindus, Amir of the 
Mohammedans and Colonel of the Khilafat Army. He 
wore a fez-cap, wore the Khilafat uniform and badge 
and he had a sword in his hand. He enjoyed absolute 
Swaraj in his Kingdom of Ernad and Walluvanad: he 
announced that he was aware that the inhabitants 
have suffered greatly from robbery and looting, that he 
would impose no taxation on them this year (1921) 
save in the way of donations to his Ayudha* Fund and 
that next year, the taxes must be forthcoming. He 

ordered numbers of agricultural labourers to reap and 

a ■ ' ' ' ■ ■ — * — --— — ' ■ ; ' — ' ' 'i - 

JAjrudliilj^Armi. , 



ft 

bring tri the paddy raised on the Tirnmulpad*s lands, the 
harvesters being paid in cash and the grains' set apart 
to feed the Haji's forces. He issued passports to persons 
wishing to get outside his kingdom and the tost of a pass 
was * very flexible figure, according to the 1 'capacity of 
the^ individual concerned. ; ■ . 

His' Swaraj commenced' about the '22nd of* August 
1921 and lasted until 6th January '*2f2 on which day he 
was captured. He was tried by th$ Court Martial at 
Malappuram and sentenced , to be shot. The sentence 
was given effect toon 20th January 1922. 

, ,4. t Kunhj Koya, Thangal, President of the Khilafat 
Committee, Ma&ppuram was ; an old man wielding great 
influence oyer the ,MopIahs at Malappuram and the 
neighbouring villages^. Wljen the Pookotur Moplahj 
resented Jibe, searpb of Sectary Mohammed's bouse by 
tfye. Police, jt was this Tangal at whose intercession they 
were pacified on condition .that police functions were 
suspended. It was .this Tangal who forcibly converted 
Mr, Komu Menon and bis family on 22nd August 1921 
and jt was he who imparted his benediction to the rebels 
before, they prppeeded to fight the Pookotur battle against 
the British troops on 26th August 1921;, He found 
fie, Martial, Law too strong for him and finding that the 
troops and the Police, were after him, wished to escape. 
On his way, probably to the Wynaad, he wa$ captured 
at.' TiriivamWi on 2nd September '21 ' and produced 
before the District Magistrate who'remah'dfid him io the 
Central Jail, Cannanore from where be died. ' " 



o79 

H, Another teddee was $eethi :Koya Tangal iof 
Kumaramputhur, who Set bimseilf up ks the 'Governor 
of a Khilafat Principality. He issued fatwas warning 
, his men against looting and other 'depredations pqinting 
out that the country had become ,theirs. Threeof the 
rioters implicated tin Elampjasserj were, punished, by ; hjm 
holding his own court-martial. The offenders wer,e 
ordered to be shot taking care only |tp, use blank partrid- 
ges, The men terrified fell down and when they rose 
there were no injuries on theicbodies which the Tangal 
attributed to his. own marvellous powers and added that 
his men will similarly .tie immune from British .Military 
attacks. He was captured: was ordered to be shot 
by the court-martial and was shot accordingly. 

, 6 r Another Tangaj who, .acquired, [notoriety Avas 
iQhernbrasseri Imbichi |Koya Tangal- He held his cour.t 
about ;midway between Tuvoonand Karuvarakuadjiiqn 
the slope of a bare hillock with about 4,000 followers 
from the neighbouring villages. More .than 40 Hindus 
were taken to the Tangal with their hands tied behind 
their back, charged with the crime of helping the Military 
by supplying them with milk, tender cocoanuts etc., and 
38 of these Hindus were condemned to death. He 
superintended the work of murder in person and seated 
on a rock near a well witnessed his men cutting at the 
neck of his victims and pushing the bodies into the well. 
Thirty-eight men were murdered, one of whom a pen- 
sioned Head Constable to whom he owed a grudge had 
his head neatly divided into two halves. The Tangal 



^80 

surrendered at "Melattur, was tried By court martial and 
ordered -to be shot. He was shot accordingly on 20th 
January 1922. 

7. Palakamthodi Avvocker Musaliar was a rebel 
leader who like Chembrasseri Tangal, took a pleasure 
in having Hindus killed and pushed into a well. He 
was arrested on 30th June 1922, tried by the Special 
Tribunal on 29th July 1922 and sentenced to death. 

8. Konnara Tangals. — The rising in Calicut 
Taluk is due to these Tangals, members of Konnara 
family, — 1. Konnara Mohammed Koya Tangal, 2. Cheru- 
kunhi Tangal. 3. Attakoya Tangal, 4. Koyakutti Tangal, 
£. Koyakutti Tangal, 6. Perukamanna Koyakutti Tangal. 

The chief among them— Konnara Mohammed Koya 
Tangal evaded capture iot a long time but was eventually 
captured at Kuthuparamba on 25th August 1922, and 
with his arrest the rebellion was finally suppressed. 

AH the six were tried for offences committed during 
the rebellion : No. 1 was sentenced to be hanged; Nos. 
2, 3 and 4 to transportation for life. The charges against 
5 and 6 are pending. 




RUINED SUB MAGISTRATE'S COURT, TIRURANGADI BACK VIEW. 



CHAPTER VI P. 

REBEL DESTRUCTIYENESS. 



The following is a list of the public offices attacked 
by the rebels : — ! 

I. REVENUE; .AND CIVIL. 

1. Combined Offices, Tirur — Records destroyed. 

2. Taluk Office, Perintalmanna — Destroyed. 

The Sub-Treasury was looted. Cash and notes for 
Rs. 3,213/- removed and 1 stamp's worth Rs. 21,471-9-3 
destroyed. 

3. Munsiffs Court, Walluvanad — Records destroyed 

4. Taluk Office, Manjeri — Damaged and records 

destroyed. 

The Sub-Treasury was looted. 'Cash and notes for 
Rs. 5,90,512-13-5 carried away. Stamps destroyed 
Rs. 9,678-12-0. 

5. Munsiffs Court, Manjeri — Records destroyed. 

6. Sub-Magistrate's Court, Tirurangadi— 'Destroyed 

7. Munsiffs Court, Parappanangadi Do. 

8. Forest Buildings, Nilambur Do. 

11 



82 
II. REQISTR1T10H OFFICES. 



1. Mannargbat \| 



4. Tirurangadi J 

5. Wandur / 



5. 

A 

7.' 

8. 
9. 



Tirurangadi 
Wandur 

VUayur 

Walluvanad 

Areacode 

Manjer! 



I&V Tirur 



Records destroyed and cash 
looted. 

DuMding damaged and a few 

records destroyed. 

Records partially burnt and 

cash* looted: 



IJty rO.ST OFFICES, 

The following Post Offices were looted : — 
Sub-Office. Branch Office. 



1. 


Tanur 


8. 


Vilayur 


2, 


Parappanangadi , 


9. 


Kalpakaacheri 


3. 


Kottaklpl 


10. 


Valangheri 


4. 


Manjeri 


11. 


Mannargbat 


5. 


Perintalmanna 


12. 


Tirurangadi 


6. 


Nilambur 


15. 


Pahdikad 


T. 


'Tirur ! 


14;' 


PuQerigode 






13. 


Keratt EsUte 


i 




16. 


Wwdoor 



fci. 

IY. POLICE STATIONS. 

The following Police Stations were sacked by the 

rebels : — 

Er^ad Taluk. 

1. fylanjeri 6. Areakode 

2. Nilambur 7. Edavanna 

3. Wandur 8. Kalikavu 

4. Karuvarakundu 9. Mudfkode 

5. Pandicad 10. Tiriiranfeadi 

11. Kundotti 

WalluvaKAD Taluk.' 

1. Perlntalmanna 3. Manrtarghat 

2. Melattur 4. Cherpulchery 

Ponnani Taluk. 

1. Tirur 3. Kaituparuthi 

2. Kalpakancheri 4. Tanur 

V. RMSOM CUTCHERIES* DESTROYED. 

Calicut Taluk. 

1. Mavoor £. Koduvalli 

2. Puthur 4. Tazhekqde 

Ernad Taluk. 

1. Irrivetti £. Kuzhimanna 

2. Tripanaehi 6. Chathahgotpuram 

3. Payyapad. 7. Tuvobr 

4. Cheruvayilr 8. Iringallur 

9. Vettikattri 

*AmsoBi CutsiiWrry-Offiie of tha viiliia keadmio. 



8.4 



1. Ariyoor 3. Nenmini 

2. ' Thachampara " 4. Elamplasserr. 

Ponnani Taluk. 
Punnayurkulam 
The records of the following Amsoms were 



des- 



troyed :— 





; ' Ernad Taluk. 


1. 


•Puliyankode 14. Nannambra 


2. 


Kondptfi 15. Peruvallur 


3. 


Vilayil — the adhigari ,16. Trikkolom 


P. Chenthamara Pisharodi w/ls f 17. Olakkara 


murdered by the rebels on 18. Vallikunnu 


7-4-'22. 


19. Tirurangadi 


4. 


Irumpuzhi 20. Olavattur 


5. 


Manjeri '21. Muthuvallur 


6. 


Peraka'rharia 22. Karumarakkad 


7. 


Urakam KLzhmuri 23. Kizhuparamba 


8. 


Valiyijja? ■? <j g 3 ; n . , v> £4. .'., Areakode— r 


9- ( 


Yengara . . The_ Adhigari A. Vasudevan 


10. 


Kahnamangalam Nambudiri was murdered 


11. 


Uragam Melmuri by the rebels on 15-10- ,21. 


12. 


Cherur 25. Urangattri 


13. 


Kotinhi ' 26. Cheekode 


r; 


' ■ " Ponnani Taluk. 


■ •>■ 1- 


Ponmudam 6. Thozhuvannur 


2. 


Melmuri . \ 7. Athavanad 


3. 


Vadakamprem 8. Trikandiyur 


4. 


Edayur ;■■,!■■:. ;■/ 9. Valiakunnu 


s, 


Kattiparuthi . 10. Irimbillyam . . 



85 

THE DAMAGE CAUSED BY REBELS TO DISTRICT 
BOARD PROPERTIES. 

Buildings (Malappuram Sub-Division.) 

1. Ucharakadavu .—Roof partly burnt;. Doors and 
windows partly burnt. All furniture either damaged or 
removed. Portions of wall of the outhouse dismantled. 

2. Mannarghat dispensary : — Roof partly burnt 
Doors and windows smashed. Furniture removed. 

3. Mannarghat Travellers' Bungalow : — Doors and 
windows smashed. Flooring damaged. 

4. Wandoor Travellers' Bungalow : — Doors and 
windows removed and burnt. Furniture removed. 

5. Pandicad Travellers' Bungalow ; — Roof burnt. 
Furniture partly burnt and partly smashed.' 

6. Kalikavu Rest house : — Entirely burnt. 

7. Nilambur Travellers' Bungalow: — Portions of 
roof burnt. Furniture smashed. 

8. Edakara Rest house .•-"-Roofing completely 
burnt. , 

9. Areacode Travellers' Bungalow .-—Roofing com- 
pletely burnt. 

10. Karuvarakundu Rest house : — Entirely burnt. 

11. Parambale Rest house: — Doors and windows 
smashed. 

12. Tirurangadi Travellers' Bungalow: — Doors and 
window shutters smashed. Furniture removed. 

13. Valiyof* Market ."-Thatched roof burnt; 



86 

;>>,;; . < Palgha* Sub-DivreiON. 

1. Vykathut She!? — Doors and windows removed 
and burnt. Furniture removed or damaged. Roofing 
tiles broken. 

2. Eddpal toll shed : — Doors and windows pilled 
down. Furniture broken. 

3. Tirtir Travellers' Bungalow : — Furniture re- 
moved. 

Calicut Taluk. 

1. PiUhupadi Satram: — Furniture removed. Roof 
partly damaged 

2. Peruvayil Bungalow : — Furniture removed. 

3. Manasseri School .—Furniture removed. 

4. Tamarasseri Dispensary .—Furniture removed. 

5. Tamarasseri Chowki /—Furniture removed. 
Bridges (Malappuram Sub-Division.) 

, QalieutrNadghani Road, No. 5 .•«— 1. Ramanadkhara 
Bridge, 2. Morayen, 3. Karikad, 4. Mambad, 5. Karim- 
pupfta, 6. Edamala, 7. Edakkara. 

Mongam-Walayur Road No. 6 : — 8. Oradam, 9. Arur. 
Palghat Sub-Division. 

1Q. Nellipuzha, 11. Churjot, 12. Mucbantbpdu, 
13. Thuppanad and J4. Vazhayiltbodu. 

Tirur-Manjeri Road No. 57 : — 15. Kottakkal Puthur 
ap$ 16. Panazhj, 

Manjeri-Uelatur Road, No. S5 i — 17. Nellikuth, 18. 
Olipuzha. J9. Uchaiakadafru, 20. Chavalth#du> it. Aroor. 




Churiot Bridge- Abutments on one side dismantled to a depth of about 5 ft. R. ( 
Jack arch of one pannel broken and bridge left hanging below road level. 



87 

Edavanna-KalikavU Road Not S$v—2t. Timber 
Bridge near Tiruvah\ 23. Bndge rie&r< Wandur, 24. 
Timber Bridge at 11/4, 25. Bridge at 13/4. 

Pattambi-Perintalmanna Road No. 54 : — 26. Erayur 
Bridge, 27. Kottapara. 

Perintalmanka-Panditad Road No. 54: — 28. Bridge 
near Patticad. 

Pandicad-Wandulr Road' N 6. 54 :— 29. Kakkathc-du 
Bridge, 4/1. 

Ottappaiam-Ctierfcfilchari Road No. 81 : — 30. Arch 
Bridge at 9/1. 

Mundur-Perintalmanna Road No. 66 : — 31. Kakka- 
thodu Bridge 26/6. 32. Bridges at 33/1 and 34/6, 
33. Bridge at 32/3. 

Kuttippuram-Angadippuram Road No. 65: — 34. 
Vylangara Bridge. 

Pulamantliole-Malappuram Road No. 63: — 35. 
Bridge at 9/7, 36. Bridge at 10/3, 37. Bridge at 12/5. 

Malappuram-Tirurangadi Road No. 67 : — 38. Bridges 
at 4/7 and 3/7, 39. Timber Bridge at 7/J, 40. Timber 
Bridge at 7/5. 

Aiiakayain-Pandicad Road No. 116?— 41. Bridge 
at 7/2. 

Pon^ani Taluk. 
42. Tirur Bridge. 

Calicut Taluk. 
KunnainangalawAteacode Road Not 49 >—43. Kal- 
lanthodu Bridge, 44. Arched Bridge at 14/2. 



-88 

In addjtioir to tb* aboye\44 bridges, 27 culverts were 

also damaged by the rebels in the rebel area. 

: : ■■ < , .;i :<: .! ' ; ' i ' " 
HINDU TEMPLES. 

It has not been found possible to ascertain the num- 
ber of temples wholly or partially destroyed and the 
numbers descecrated. In reply to a question by Diwan 
Bahadur Krishnan ,Nair M. L. C, in the Legislative 
Council Madras, it was stated that "no statistics have 
been compiled, but the number of temples destroyed or 
descecrated must exceed 100. The number is probably 
large, but for obvious reasons the Government have 
purposely refrained from attempting to collect accurate 
figures." (Legislative Council interpellation, November 
14th '22). 

In respect of temples the following observations by 
Mr. Iprabhakaran Thampan M. L. C. will not be out of 
place. ; 

"Moplahs, who make such a great fuss about the 
inviolable sanctity of their Mosques appear to imagine 
that they can desecrate or destroy Hindu temples with 
-impunity i It is this spirit of religious antagonism which 
renders all hope of Hindu-Moslem Unity in Malabar 
impossible. I am anxious that it should be brought home 
to the ignorant Moplah that the Hindus regard their 
temples as sacrosanct as they do their mosques. This 
can only be done,by Moplah religious leaders.". {Madras 
Mail data 22-1 1 -22), :' - 



89 

There is hardly a village that has not its own temple, 
in the majority of villages there is more than one, and 
almost every temple in the rebel area has been dese- 
crated. , 

In view of the number of Hindu Temples destroyed m 
above, the following question and answer regarding Mosques 
and Moplah Schools will be read with interest. 

Q.— Mr. A. D. Bayotti Sahib: will the Hon. the Home 
Member be pleased to state 

How many Mosques and Madarasas (indigenous schools) 
were burnt or destroyed by the Military or Police forces in the 
rebellion. 

A. — The Government are not aware that any Mosques 
were burnt or destroyed by the Military or Police daring the 
rebellion and would be glad if the Hon. Member would inform 
them if be knows of any suob oases. As regards Madarasas, 
the Government have no information (Proceedings of the 
Legislative Council, 21st Deoember 22, page 1098). 

HINDU AND MOPLAH HOUSES. 

In reply to an interpellation in the Legislative Coun- 
cil by Mr. A. D. M. Bavotti Sahib, M. L, C, regarding 
the' number of Hindu and Moplah houses looted and the 
number destroyed by the rebels the statement was made 
that " the Government have no precise information and 
in the nature of the case can never expect to obtain it." 
(Legislative Council, November 14th '22.) 



12 



. . chapter vrii. 
THE TRAIN TRAGEDY; 



The following incident took place in the course of 
the rebellion : — 

; 'On'l9tn Nov. 1921 One Hundred prisoners (97 
Moplahs and 3 Hindus) convicted of offences' connected 
with, the rebellion were sent by train from Tirur to Coim- 
batore. They were entrained in M. S. & S. M. Railway 
Luggage Van No. 1711 attached, to the rear end of the 
evening , train Na 77 from Calicut, On arrival at 
Podanuiy the prisoners were all found lying down in a 
state' bf 'collapse.' Fifty-six including the three Hindus 
had died. Fbrty-fouf survivors were taken id Coimba- 
tore. Of them six died on being taken out of the train 
at that station; f Olf those' remaining, {hirteen were sent 
to [the; Civil Hospital, Coimbatore and twenty-five to the 
Central Jail , Hospital., . Of- the thirteen taken to the 
hospital,f 2 died on. arrival and. four mora in the same 
afternoon and, two pa the, 26th. The total number of 
deaths jthus amounted to 70. . , 

,f The < Government of Madras appointed a Com- 
mittee of Enquiry arid On the result being reported, the 
Government of India passed orders on 30th August 1922. 

"The Government concur in the view of the 
committee that the use of luggage vans for the convey- 
ance of prisoners in such an emergency was not in itself 




Van No. 1711. 



objectionable, or inhuman. Though not intended for 
passengers the vans were not closed trucks, but ventilat- 
ed vehicles and where the Venetians were not obstructed, 
there; was sufficient perforation to enable a considerable 
number of prisoners to be carried in them in safety. 

They agree also with the Committee that practice of 
using vehicles of this exceptional type which were never 
intended for the conveyance of human beings, should not 
have been left to the unregulated discretion of subordi- 
nates but should have been brought under proper regula- 
tion. They concur also in the view of the Committee 
that for the omission to take this precaution, the Military 
Commander cannot be held responsible. 

" The Government of India appreciate the admirable 
services rendered during the rebellion by Mr. Evans and 
Mr. Hitchcock and they recognise the arduous character 
of the work which devolved up6h them. They cannot bat 
greatly regret that neither of these officers took steps to 
bring the practice of conveying prisoners in these luggage 
vans under proper regulation. Had it been laid down 
that a responsible civil officer should in consultation with 
the railway authorities satisfy himself that the ventilation 
of each van was adequate for the number of prisoners 
despatched in it, it is almost certain that no loss of life 
would have occurred. 

" As between Mr. Hitchcock and Mr. Evans, the 
Government of India think the larger share of the' res* 
porisibility attaches to Mr. Evans, who WaS crjrista&tly at 



9* 

Tirur and had therefore greater opportunities for looking 
into the arrangements at that place for the transport of 
prisoners and was the Superior Officer. 

" They cannot however, agree with the Committee 
that Sergeant Andrews cannot be blamed for using this 
particular van. As the Police Officer in charge, he should 
not have limited his inspection of the van to the question 
of security, but should have satisfied himself that the 
accommodation was suitable for the conveyance of the 
prisoners. 

, "There is independent testimony that the noise 
from the van was such as to suggest that the prisoners 
were in distress. The Committee observe that it is not 
possible to define with complete certainty, the nature of 
the clamour made by the prisoners, but they cannot avoid 
the conclusion that the shouting and the meaning and 
calling for water and air must have been so exceptional 
and so striking that they ought to have attracted the 
special ; attention of the Sergeant and his escort. The 
Government of India concur in this conclusion. 

"They do not wish to dispute the views of the 
Committee that Sergeant Andrews was not guilty of 
deliberate inhumanity, but they consider that in disregar- 
ding the cries and failing to investigate for himself the 
reasons for what must, in the words of the Committee, 
have been a very unusual clamour, both in extent and 
nature the Sergeant displayed culpable negligence. They 
f^so agree with the Committee that the Head-constable 



93 

and constables who failed to convey to Sergeant Andrews 
a clearer understanding of , the position which their better 
knowledge of the language must have given them, must 
share in this condemnation. 

"The Government of India have instructed the 
Government of Madras that a prosecution should be 
instituted against Sergeant Andrews. It will rest with 
that Government to decide what action, in view of the 
findings above recorded, should be taken in regard to the 
Head constable and the constables." (Madras Matt) 

Sergeant Andrews and the Policemen were according- 
ly prosecuted but discharged. 

The Madras Government have sanctioned a compas- 
sionate allowance of Rs. 300 to the families of each of 
the 70 deceased prisoners. (Order No. 290 dated 1st 
April '22). 



CHAPTER JX. 

RELIEF MEASURES. 



" Our grateful thanks are due to the many philan- 
thropists and public bodies for the aid they have 
ungrudgingly given us in our hour of trial. It is a 
matter of great gratification that people outside this 
presidency, especially in Bombay, the United Provinces 
and the Punjab have shown by their deeds that charity 
knows no limitations of clime or country. It is always 
invidious to mention names, but I cannot allow this 
opportunity to pass without referring gratefully to the 
invaluable assistance rendered by Mr. Devadhar of the 
Servants of India Society and the ladies who came with 
him all the way from Bombay." (Speech of the 
Zamorin Raja of Calicut at the Conference held at 
Calicut on 19th Feb. '23). 

" Within a few days of the outbreak of the rebellion 
in August 1921, the necessity was realised of giving relief 
to the thousands of people who had fled from their homes 
for their lives and congregated in a few centres. A few 
leading public spirited gentlemen of Calicut at once 
organised themselves into a Committee for this purpose, 
and did good work by collecting funds in Calicut and 
elsewhere and by carrying provisions into the interior 
despite dangerous risks." Report of the Malabar Central 
Relief Committee Nov. 23rd '22. 




Pudiara Camp (Camp I). Men, Women and Children ready for meal. 

The Central Relief Committee. 



Much more was required tha!rr local efforts in Calicut 
could supply arid in September the Servants of India 
Society deputed Mr. G. K. Devadhar to visit Malabar and' 
take necessary steps for the gratnt of relief. 

By October, the Arya Samaj Society deputed Pandit 
Rishi Ram to visit Malabar for the relief of the distressed 
refugees and for the reconversion of Hindus who had 
been forcibly converted to the Moslem faith* 

By 5th October the Kerala Congress Committe'e, 
Calicut commenced giving relief to the refugees ' hi 
Calicut. ...'.■:.' 

The measures are briefly narrated in the accompany- 
ing reports. To this have been added a short description 
of the relief of refugees at Mankavu, Kottakkal, Mankada-, 
Kavalapara and Kolathur in Malabar, and Trichur in 
Cochin State. v 

. 1. THE CENTRAL RELIEF CdMlHitfEE. 

Mr. G. K. Devadhar, M. A., Vice-President. 

Mr. G. T. Verghese B. A. Diwan Bahadur* Vide- 
President: 

" In Septerhber, the Servants of India Society depic- 
ted Mr. G. K. Devadhar and three other members to 
visit Malabar, investigate into the conditions,, and decide 
upon organising the work of relief with the cd-operatioVi 
of local organisations, the Government and also by invit- 
ing other philanthropic bodies, if necessary to join the 
wbrk. Mr. Devadhar f and party after a perilous tour in 



96. 

the affected area, placed their scheme of relief before the 
Provisional Committee, and the Malabar Central Relief 
Committee was formed on October 9th, the Servants of 
India Society offering their services to collect funds all 
over the country and to organise work in Malabar. 

From October, Concentration Camps were formed 
with kitchen relief in Calicut and rice doles in the 
mofussil. As the numbers of refugees increased, day by 
day, new camps were opened. . Within a few weeks 
there were 22 camps in all, with about 26,000 refugees 
of all castes and creeds. 



" The Y. M. C. A. arrived on the scene at the end of 
November and in addition to the welfare work in the 
camps they also took up the management of a large camp 
under the Central Relief Committee. 

" About the beginning of January the refugees began 
to leave the camps for their homes and the Committee 
gave liberal repatriation doles in money, ranging from 
Rs. 5 to Rs. 20 per family in addition to a week's provi- 
sions and the wages earned by them under the employ- 
jnent scheme, all of which helped them considerably in 
restoring their lives. The Relief camps were closed at 
the end of February, with the exception of one in Calicut 
for forced converts, decrepit, old and infirm people and 
this was maintained till July. 

"The Committee's attention after February was 
directed to the relief of those who did not receive help 



97 

from the Government .who had by that time begun to 
grant loans, etc., to the sufferers. For about 3 months, 
the bulk of the people who received the Committee's 
help were mostly destitute Moplah women and children 
whose cause was represented to the Committee by the 
Special Commissioner after investigation of the Commit- 
tee appointed by him to enquire into the distress of these 
people. The Committee's intention was to close its 
work by the end of May by giving valedictory doles to 
such of the deserving cases as have not received help 
from any other source: Housing grants to the extent of 
Rs. 5,000 which assisted the restoration of about thousand 
homesteads and doles of rice were distributed during this 
period in addition to cloth and medicines. On the 
recommendations of the relief workers, the 1 represent- 
ations of local people, observations of otitside visitors, 
and the Government, the Committee decided to continue 
its operations till the end of September when the first 
harvest was expected. Accordingly Mr. Devadhar pre- 
vious to his third visit to Malabar, arranged to issue; a 
second appeal by Bombay -Relief Committee to the 
country to help the Committee iii their resolve. ' 

" From June the Committee . began , the distribution 
of relief in grain and cloth to all, irrespective of , caste 
and creed who were found to be in need of them after 
careful scrutiny by its workers and till September over 
6000 families were relieved in about 115 amsoms. 



13 



\<? 8 

"At this period the Committee embarked upon a 
very costly and complicated scheme of opening cheap 
grain depots in various centres in the interior ; the succes* 
of which was greatly facilitated by the concessions grant; 
ed by the Imperial Bank of India. This scheme in addi- 
tion to> the supply of cheap grain and free distribution 
as necessity demanded helped to maintain the level of 
prices throughout the affected area thus rendering an 
indirect relief to all people. 

"The total receipts of the Committee amount to 
Rs. 3,07,696-15-8 excluding articles in kind especially 
cloth Worth over 60,000 Rs. received mostly from the 
I munificent mill-owners of Bombay while the expenditure 
amount to Rs. 2,72,094-2-5 with a bank balance of 
Rs. 35,602-13-3. 

"The Servants of India Society were requested to 
undertake the work of re-construction by starting a 
centre .on the West Coast and the balance of the funds 
at the disposal of the Committee has been for this pur- 
pose i of re-construction consolidated into a Trust Fund 
of re-construction after the name of Mr. Devadhar who 
rendered to Malabar in her hour of distress such incalcul- 
able services which will ever gratefully be cherished by 
her people. The fund will be known as the " Devadhar 
Malabar Reconstruction Fund." (Report of the Central 
Relief Committee). 

II. THE ARYA SAMAJ SOCIETY. 

Pandit Rishi Ram B.A., Arya Missionary arrived in 
Calicut on 11th November '21 and after inquiry into 



78 

"At thi> period the Committee cmbr-.iK 1 ;-•, i 
very costly and complicated scheme of opening 'Lap 
grain depots in various centres in the interior ; the- sin rt < v * 
of which y as greatly facilitated by th? <oricrsii<,u3 frant 
ed by the Imperial Bank of India. This sclu rre in addi- 
tion to the supply of cheep prain and fr«.f: distribution 
as necessity demanded J.elp<xl to maintain tho lev.I of 
prices throughout the affected ar*a thus rendering an 
indirect relief to all people. 

"The. total receipts of th'.- Comrvittcc amount to 
Hi. 3,07,6%-15-S excluding articles in kind specially 
cloth worth over 60.0,").') R-,. r<.-:'v.~.J tw.'.l) f'-.rri tJ-ic 
munificent mill-owner; of I'.omhuy aIj;;; the «>;'? !.vi-< 
amount to Rr. 2,72,094-^-5 v itfi a bank bi!a:..e of 
Rs. 35,602-13-3. % 

"The Servants of India Socici) v ere rcpj'.-st-.-d to 
undertake the work of re-con»truct:'on by starting a 
centre on the, West Coast and the balance of the fund' 
at the disposal of the Committee has teen fir this pur- 
pose of re-construction consolidated i;t ■> a Trust Fund 
of re-construction after the name cf Mr. I^eva^har who 
rendered to Malabar in her hour of distress such iocaJcul 
able services which will ever gratefully be cherished by 
her people. The fund will 1« known ai the " DtvaJ*> r 
Malabar Reconstruction Fund." (Report of thr O ' d 
Relief Committee). 

II. THE ABTA S1MAJ SOCIETY. 

Fandit Rishi Ram B.A., Arya Missionary .'!.vd m' 
Calicut on 11th November '21 and after i; ;• iry into 




JtlCE DISTRIBUTION, ARYA SAMAJ CENTRE, TIRURAN 3ADI. 



99 

local conditions started relief on the 29th. By January 
22, the number of refugees receiving rice dolls from the 
Arya Samaj went up to 1800. In March, another centre 
was opened at Mayanad with 4000 women and children 
and this continued for two months. In the months of 
June, July and August, when owing to excessive rains 
and want of work, people were in very great difficulties, 
Arya Samaj distributed rice from five different centres, — 
Calicut, Tuvur, Nilambur, Tirurangadi and Neeralamukh 
and the total number of daily recipients was more than 
10,000. The Arya Samaj has spent Rs. 45,000/- on 
relief work and on re-conversion of forced converts up to 
the end of September 1922. The whole of this money 
except two or three small donations from local persons 
was received from Punjab and other places outside 
Madras Presidency. 

III. KERALA CONGRESS COMMITTEE. 

"" K. Madhavan Nair, B.A., B.L., Superintendent of 
the Relief Branch, Calicut. 

The Committee commenced giving relief at Manjeri 
on 9th September 1921 and at Calicut on 5th October. 

On 17th January 1922 it was decided by the working 
committee of the Congress that able-bodied refugees 
should not be granted relief gratuitously, but that they 
should work. 

On 28th February relief was stopped to such of the 
refugees who did not work. Most of the refugees returp- 
ed to their homes. 



100 

On 1st March the number remaining for relief at 
Calicut was 1127, exclusive of Moplahs from the interior 
to whom relief was extended for one week. 

On 8th September 1922 relief at Calicut was wholly 
stopped. 

The particulars of receipts and expenditure are 
shown below j — 





Rs. 


A. 


P. 


Total receipts 


.. 1,53,557 


6 


3 


Expenditure ... 


... 1,28,962 


7 


6 


This includes i Relief to 








Calicut and the rebel area 








Refugees 


... 92,221 


4 


10 


Trichur 


... 8,855 








Palghat 


2,700 








Paid to spinning school for reft 


igees 9,258 


4 






THE, MANKAYO PALACE, CALICUT. 

M. R. Ry. The Zamorin Raja of Calicut 
Rao Bahadur K. Sreeniyasa Rao, Estate Collector, 

Within a week of the .outbreak Nambudiri refugees 
began to flock at the doors of' the Mankavu Palace in 
large, numbers, Whole , families had come from the 
eastern part, of the Calicut Taluk and also from the 
adjoining villages of the Ernad Taluk. The camp start- 
ed giving relief on the 27th August 1921. In the begin- 
ning for' some time the strength of the camp stood bet- 
ween 500 and 600 souls. Later many left for Cochin 




Side-view of the Mooriat (Camp Camp) II in Calicut 

when the Doctor is on his usual round while the 

refugees are being served their meal. 

The Central Relief Committee. 



101 

•~rtr 

and Travancore States when the panic of the rebellion 
spreading to Calicut became greater and more intense. 
The influx of new refugees was however continuous, and 
the decrease in strength was not appreciable during the 
height of the rebellion. The camp was continued till 
the end of February. The average daily attendance was 
about 350. They were fed twice daily and they were 
supplied with oil and other necessaries of life according 
to usage. There were a few deaths among the aged and 
diseased and among the children. The death rate was 
not out of normal. There were many births also. There 
were no epidemics. The condition of the refugees was on 
the whole satisfactory. There was a great disinclination 
on the part of a large number to leave the camp when it" 
was, disbanded. A small number had held on even after. 
The relief on the whole cost about Rs: 16,000/- 

K0TTAKKAL PALACE. 

M. R. Ry. Manavikraman ,Raja (Kutti Ettan Raja), 
Kizhekkekovilagam, Kottakkal . 

Kottakkal is situated in Ernad Taluk and is eight 
miles from the Tirur Railway Station. It is the head- 
quarters of the Kizhekkekovilagam or Eastern Branch of 
the Zamorin Raja's Swarupam* 

The rebellion broke out on the 20th August 1921; 
Kottakkal is only 8 miles from Tirurangadi and on 21st 

*Swarupam=Family. 



102 

August a mob of Moplahs approached the palace threat- 
eningly. They were persuaded to return. It as an 
anxious time for the Kottakkal family. They had to 
defend themselves against attacks by the rebels and they 
had to maintain the refugees who were pouring in. 
The resident Karanavan maintained the traditions of 
the family ; he arranged for the defence and also for the 
relief. 

The Palace is a substantial building, with high walls 
and gate-houses and watchmen were posted at different 
points for purposes of defence. Outside the Palace over 
750 men consisting chiefly of Moplahs were employed 
during the first two weeks and as the fury abated the 
numbers were reduced and the Moplahs were replaced by 
Nayars as far as possible. The escape of Kottakkal and 
the Palace from the attacks of the rebels is mainly the 
result of Mr. Austin's timely intercession and of the 
assistance rendered by the Military. The family feels 
deeply indebted to Messrs. Austin and Evans; Colonel 
Humphreys and Colonel Radcliffe and also Major 
Weldon. 

The number of watchmen: — During the first two 
weeks 750 ; third week 275 ; fourth and fifth weeks 207 ; 
sixth week 125 ; and next 3 months 60. 

Refugees began coming in by 22nd August. There 
was on aii average 576 refugees daily and the relief 
closed on 11th February 1922. The total amount spent 
sRs. 27,424. 



> J83 

MANKADA PALACE. 

Rao Bahadur Krishna Varma Raja of Mankada. 

Mankada is situated in Walluvanad Taluk, six miles 
from the Taluk head-quarters, Perintalmanna. The 
family is a branch of the Walluvanad Rajas's Swarupam. 

The Kovilakam was thrown into a panic a day after 
the outbreak (20th August 1921) and at once the local 
tenants including the Moplahs were organised as watch- 
men. After the looting of the Treasury at Perintalmanna 
a regular system of patrol was adopted and watchposts 
constructed. There were about fifteen of them all round 
the Palace walls. The total number of regularly paid 
watchmen exceeded 800. There was frequent supervision 
all round by the Palace agents. 

Relief for those who sought protection began on the 
21st August 1921. The number of persons fed, began 
with 100 and gradually increased till it reached to about 
2000 after the 25th of the month when murders and 
conversions commenced. This number continued with 
variations till December when gradually the refugees 
began to go back to their homes. It was by the end of 
April 1922 that all the refugees left. 

There was no actual attempt made by the rebels to 
enter the Kovilakam but thrice there were rumours of 
impending attacks. But, the rebels, for some reason or 
other, did not venture on an attack. On the 30th of 
August 1921 the Government sent 15 Reserve Policemen. 
About the 1st of October the Government sent 50 



104 

soldiers, belonging to the 64th Pioneers. They were 
after a week relieved by the Dorsets who were after a 
month replaced by the Gurkhas. The Gurkhas left in 
December. « 

It is not possible to give correct figures as to the 
amount of loss sustained by the Kovilakam. But 
Rs. 20,000 will be only below, the actual expenses Incur- 
red for the relief. 

THE KAVALAPPARA K0TTA8AH. 

The above is the residence of Lieutenant Kavalappara 
Moopil Nayarj the head of an ancient and aristocratic 
Nair family. It is two miles from the railway station 
of Shoranur. . 

It is this family that ruled the Moplah out of their 
jurisdiction and . it has been the custom from time im" 
memorial that in the seven amsoms that constitute their 
jurisdiction no Moplah shall reside or hold land an excep- 
tion in respect of a day's residence being made in faveur 
of Moplahs who attended the shandy or weekly market 
at Vaniyamkulam for the sale of their goods. They come 
and they go and, except on the night o( their arrival, 
they are not expected to stay. 

Refugees began coming in by 1st October 1921 and 
the relief was started at the Mupil Nayat^s expense. By 
10th October the Kavalappara Relief camp was affiliated 
to the Central Relief Committee, Calicut contributed 
Rs. 8,299-14-0 towards the relief at Kavalappara. The 



M 

Moopil Nayar gave an initial subscription of Rs. 300 to 
the relief fund and spent considerable amounts for thfe 
relief of the refugees. 

From the date of the opening the camp; Via;, 10th 
October, the number of refugees began to increase rapidly 
and by the 14th of that month it rose above 1,000. and 
the increase continued steadily until the highest figure 
— 1,523 — was reached on 1st December 1921. Without 
any remarkable decrease the number remained high till 
14th January 1922 and it was only after that date it fell 
bejow 1,000. Concurrently with the increase in number, 
strenuous efforts were made to provide able-bodied male 
refugees with work and this went a great way to keep 
down the number of refugees given .relief and also 
accounts for much smaller number of male refugees com- 
pared tip women and children. 

Form of relief:— -Relief was given in thii camp 
throughout the whple period in rice doles at Hie rate of 
2 nazhis* for adults and 1 nazhi for , children per day 
with also salt and chillies at two centres viz., Vaniyam- 
kulam and Kavalappara where the refugees assem-; 
bled every morning. Cloth relief was also granted to* 
refugees at intervals selecting poor arid ill-clad refugees 
for such relief. Girigelly oil for full oil-bath was dlsb 
supplied on six occasions. " ' ' 

K0LATHUR. 

M. R- Ry. Sulapani Varier is the iiead of Kolathur 
Tarwad,t an ancient and aristocratic family which has 
suffered more than oftce at the hands of the Moplah 
*Narhi=SmalI Malabar measure. tTarwad=Fainily. 

14 



t06 

fanatics. In August 1851, exactly seventy years ago, 
Moplah fanatics attacked the house, brought out into the 
paddy-field the head of the family, an old man of seventy- 
nine, and hacked him into pieces. In September 1873 
fanatics murdered a junior member of the family in the 
absence of the senior. 

On the present occasion Kolathur family, Kolathur 
village and thousands of refugees from outlying villages 
were saved by the efforts of the Moopil Varier, who had 
to be thankful to his ancestors for the wise precaution 
taken by them after the outbreak of September 1873 in 
having converted an ancient building into a fortified 
mansion with strong walls and iron-barred doors, suffi- 
ciently strong to resist the attack of an ordinary Moplah 
mob. 

On 22nd August 1921 morning a mob of Moplahs 
approached this strong mansion but found themselves 
almost helpless against it, and the Moopil Varier was 
able, by persuasion and by threats, to induce them to go 
back, of course for a consideration which in the present 
instance took the shape of 50 paras of paddy. By even- 
ing the local Moplahs repented of their morning madness 
and co-operated with the Moopil Varier in organising a 
strong guard of about 300 men, Hindus and Moplahs, 
for the safety of the place. 

By^ 24th, streams of refugees began to flock to 
Kolathur from outlying villages and were granted relief 
at great cost and inconvenience. The number swelled up 
to 1,000 for a few days, and gradually fell off until relief 
was stopped in February 1922. 



197 

TRICHCR RELIEF COMMITTEE 

Cochin State. 
M. R. Ry. K. Kochu Govinda Marar Avl., 

Chairman, Municipal Council, Trichur 

and Secretary, Relief Committee. 

The Relief measures adopted in Cochin State are 
detailed in the following order of the Government of 
H. H. The Maharaja of Cochin : — 

C. O. dated 3rd April 1922, C. No. 1174J97. 
Government have perused with interest the report 
submitted by the Chairman of the Trichur Municipal 
Council on the relief measures carried on at Trichur. 
These operations covered a period of four months from 
the early days of October 1921 and ending with January 
1922 and were themselves necessitated by the distur- 
bances in British Malabar which for the time being 
brought to a stand-still the normal machinery for the 
protection of person and property. 

2. Situated so close to the affected area the Govern- 
ment were well aware that these disturbances would not 
leave the State unaffected and that the helpless- people 
would throng into the State for protection and relief. 
And so it happened. At the first signs of the inrush a 
public meeting was held at Ernakulam and a Central 
Relief Committee was formed to concert measures for 
the relief of distress among these refugees. Public subs, 
criptions were invited. The Government offered Rs. 2,000, 
His Highness the Maharaja was pleased to offer Rs. 1,000 



m 



and the Diwan and the Paliath Valia Achan offered 
Rs. 500 each. Subscriptions amounting to Rs. 5,000 
were collected on the spot and the work of relief began, 
the Government undertaking to meet any deficit that 

might accrue. The scheme of relief was intended to 

. .') if-. • •■ • j < •••''• 

cover the whole State wherever the refugees were found 

and to effect this the Diwan Peishkar and the Registrar 

of Village Panchayats were put in touch with the Central 

Relief Gommittre. 

3: The operations at Trichur and its environments 
lormed but one part of the general scheme of relief, 
though by far the most important part. There were at 
one time as many as 8,425 persons on the relief list at 
Trichur comprising 3,125 men, 4,181 women and 1,219 
children distributed over 240 camps — many of them 
spacious buildings generously placed at the disposal of 
the Committee by private citizens. The total expenditure 
oh relief works in Trichur amounted to Rs. 48,720-3-9. 
In the Government Orders read above the Government 
have already j ^i ten a donation of Rs. 10,000 for relief 
work and have also aided the Chairman with advances 
id the* extent of Rs. 10,000 towards the same purpose. 
Government are now pleased to order that the advances 
thus far sanctioned might be treated as outright gifts. 
They are further pleased to order that a further sum of 
Rs. 17,904-8-6 be sanctioned to meet the outstanding 
liabilities incurred by the Trichur Municipal Chairman 
for the work of relief i 




RELIEF CAMP ARYA SAMAJ, CALICUT. 



CHAPTER X. 

GOVERNMENT LOANS. 



In his letter dated 30th March, issued with 
G. O. No. 263 dated 26th April, 1922, the Hon'ble Mr. 
A. R. Knapp made the following remarks on the subject 
of repairing rebellion losses : — 

" Of the Hindus who fled from the rebellion area a 
considerable number mainly Jenmis have not yet return- 
ed. Of the rest many have gone back to their amsoms 
to find their houses either wholly or partially destroyed. 
Immediately on the removal of the Martial Law I took 
steps to enable these sufferers to start at once on the 
restoration of their houses. Under a scheme which I 
submitted for the sanction of the Government, advances 
under the Agricultural Loans Act are being made to all 
such sufferers for the purpose of re-building. The money 
is granted free of interest for a year in the first instance. 
An establishment consisting of two Superintendents of 
Reconstruction with a staff of seven supervisors is at 
work and will by the end of this month have dealt with 
half the affected area. The restoration of houses had 
already commenced on my last visit to Ernad and save 
in the case of the larger houses will be completed well 
before the monsoon. In addition to money lent for 
restoration of buildings, advances are also being ■ made 



lit 

for the purchase of seed and implements and also for the 
maintenance of the applicant and his family until the 
next harvest." (West Coast Spectator, dated 16th May 
1922). 

LOANS SANCTIONED. 
" With a view to afford temporary assistance in the 
reconstruction of their affairs to those who have suffered 
loss as the result of the Moplah rebellion, the Special 
Commissioner for Malabar affairs recommended the 
following proposals for the advance of loans under the 
Agriculturists Loans Acts, 1884. — 

1 . That loans may be given for the reconstruction 
of houses and where absolutely necessary, for the replace- 
ment of lost cattle and for the relief of distress in the 
parts of the Malabar District where Martial Law has 
been in force. 

2. That the period of the loans for the present be 
one year. 

3. That all loans for the restoration of houses and 
the replacement of lost cattle shall be free of interest for 
one year : loans for the relief of distress up to a maximum 
of Rs. 200 in each case shall be free of interest for one 
year, and loans exceeding that limit shall.bear interesst at 
4% per annum. 

4. That the following officers shall be c>; intent 
to sanction loans up to the limits indicated : — 

a. Superintendents of Reconstruction up to Rs. 
1000 Jn each case-. 



Ill 

b. Divisional Officers up to Rs. 2500 in each case. 

c. The Collector up to Rs. 5000 in each case. 

d. The Special commissioner for Malabar affairs 
up to Rs. 10,000 in each case. 

5. That individual loans up to the following limits 
may be sanctioned on a summary enquiry and on the 
borrower's simple bond, with a surety where possible. 
The Jenmi's guarantee on behalf of the tenants is also 
being obtained wherever it is possible to do so without 
delaying the relief operations : 

a. For the purchase of cattle Rs. 100 

b. For the relief of distress Rs. 200 

c. For the restoration of houses Rs. 250 

6. That loans in excess of the limits specified in 
clause (5) above shall be subject to the ordinary routine 
of application and inquiry." 

These proposals received the sanction of the Govern- 
ment. 

The report of the Collector of Malabar on the re- 
construction loans is appended. (Order No. 176 Public 
dated 6th March 1923.) 

I have the honour to submit the report called for by 
Government on the reconstruction loans. 

2. By the end of January 1922, the back of the 
rebellion had been broken and most of the amsams in 
Ernad and Walluvanad were safe. It was imperative 
that the thousands of refugees should return home and 
begin the cultivation of their fields. Much of the Kanni 



crop of 1921 bad been lost and there had been little 
sowing in the Makarotn season. If famine was to be 
averted a crop must be sown in the spring of 1922- 
But many of the refugees had lost everything. Their 
houses had been burnt or damaged > their vessels and 
their stock of paddy looted ; their ploughing cattle 
slaughtered and their seed stolen. The poorer refugees 
were without resources. They could settle down in their 
amsams only if they were given money to repair their 
houses and to buy food ; they could not begin cultivation 
till they had money for seed, ploughs and cattle. 

3. Mr. Knapp, the Special Commissioner for Mala- 
bar, having had a preliminary survey of the conditions in 
a few amsams made by Mr. Kunhiraman Nayar, proposed 
to Government that assistance in the reconstruction of 
their affairs be given to sufferers from the rebellion by a 
free use of the Agriculturist Loans Act. This Act per- 
mits the giving of loans for the purchase of seed-grain 
and ploughing cattle, for the rebuilding of houses, and in 
times of (distress for the enabling of agriculturists and 
their dependents to subsist till reaping of the next har- 
vest* As it was essential that help should be given 
quickly Mr 1 . Knapp proposed that individual loans tip to 
a maximum of Rs. 100 for the purchase of cattle, Rs. 200 
for subsistence till the next harvest and Rs. 250 for the 
restoration of houses might be sanctioned on a summary 
inquiry and on the borrowers simple bond with a surety 
if possible. The loans, it was suggested, might be for 
one year in the first instance and be free of interest for 



113 

that year, the terms on which these should be repaid being 
decided before' the year was up. Loans 'above Rs. 200 
for the relief of distress, however, were to bear ihte'rest at 
4 per cent. Government by G. Ov No. 173," dated 23rd 
February 1922, accepted these proposals and empowered 
the Superintendent of Reconstruction, the Divisional 
Officers, the Collector and the Special Commissioner to 
grant loans tip to varying maxima. Teh lakhs*' of rupees 
were placed at the disposal of the Collector. 

4. r The work of granting loans on summary rnqtiiry 
Was 1 given to* two Superintendents of Reconstruction of 
the grade of Deputy Collector, under whom worked 
seven Supervisors. The Supervisors went" from amsom 
to amsom explaining the scheme, recording applications 
and investigating them. The ' Superintendents' followed, 
decided' the application, took bonds from "the borrowers 
and paid them on the spot. Loans above the amounts 
which 1 might be given on summary inquiry were granted 
by! the Collector and the Divisional" officers after the 
inquiry prescribed nndef the Act had been made by the 
Superintendents of Reconstruction, The loans rose frbm 
Rs. 46,034 in March when the work began to Rs. 
6,72,123 by the end of June. The majority of' the earlier 
loans were given mainly for the repair of houses and, the 
purchase of seed, cattle and ploughs* In July and August, 
the period between the sowing and the harvest, which 
even in normal years is a time of hardship, loans were 
taken mainly for subsistance. A depot for the sale of 
seed bought from unaffected portions of Walluvanad was 

15 



! 114 

opened at Manjeri and borrowers were given the option 
of taking their loans in seed or money. Most took 
money. 

5. In all Rs. 8,97,401 have been lent to some 
13,500 borrowers. This includes comparatively large 
loans to four rubber companies to enable them to re- 
construct buildings which had been destroyed and to 
carry on their business, which involves the employment 
of large numbers. Rs. 1,55,750 have been given for the 
purchase of seed ploughs and tools ; Rs. 3,60748 for sub- 
sistence; Rs. 2,60,650 for the restoration of houses 
and Rs. 1,11,253 for the purchase of cattle.. About 
Rs. 3,92,275 have been given in sums of less than Rs. 100. 
Most of the loans are for dne year in the first instance 
and are free of interest for that year. Loans at 7 J per 
cent for the restoration of houses have been given to 
Moplas whose loyalty was suspect but who were in need 
of assistance. The smaller loans have been granted on 
' the borrower's simple bond with a surety wherever possi- 
ble. The larger loans are secured by mortgages on 
immovable property of the borrowers. 

. 6. The scheme of granting loans achieved its pur- 
pose. Once the scheme became known there was a 
marked increase in the number of refugees returning to 
Ernad and Wallavanad. The refugees from the Calicut 
taluk even after the camps in Calicut Town were closed 
hesitated to return to their homes, clustered in camp out- 
side Calicut. The Superintendent and his Supervisors 
visited the camp, explained the scheme, and set going a 



115 

movement of return. In Ernad and Walluvanad the 
acreage cultivated was above the normal average. Com- 
petent observers were of opinion that in July and August 
there was less privation than usual. The loans given to 
the rubber estates enabled them to begin work and to 
give employment to many persons in the areas most 
affected by the rebellion. There has been an excellent 
Kanni crop and the Makarom crop promises well. Nor- 
mal conditions have been restored. The loans given by 
Government have been a very important factor in this 
speedy restoration. 

7. The Reconstruction staff has done excellent 
work. The two Superintendents, Messrs. M. Kunhi- 
raman Nayar and K. A. Mukundan deserve special 
mention. They were given a task which demanded 
initiative, energy and discrimination, and they have 
proved equal to it. One assumes integrity on the part 
of men of their class and standing ; but it is worthy of 
note that at a time of many rumours they have distribut- 
ed over four lakhs of rupees and that there has been no 
whisper against them. 



CHAPTER XI. 

RECONVERSION, 



In view of a larger number of Hindus forcibly 
converted during the present rebellion, a meeting was 
held on- August 20, 1922 under the presidency of the- 
Zamorin Raja of Calicut with a council of Nambudiri . 
Vaideekans* to decide the question of the future status of 
• these forced converts. 

The proceedings are quoted below: — 
RECONVERSIONS, 

" The meeting of . the Vaideekans, called by the 
Zamorin Raja of Calicut was held At. the Estate Office 
on Sunday, the; 20th instant, 1922. Several leading 
gentlemen^ were present including the. Zamorin, Mr. R. 
H. Ellis, Collector of Malabar and Mr. Sreenivasa Rao, 
the Estate Collector, The: proceedings commenced at 3 
o'clock ; and lasted about two hours. The object of the 
meeting, as already announced, was to consider the ques-' 
tion of receiving back to the Hindu fold the great number 
of Hindus forcibly converted to Islam or compelled to do 
things against the accepted rules of Hindu Society. It was 
resolved after careful consideration among the Vaideekans 
present that the following ' prayachithams't would be 
sufficient to expiate the sins forced upon the victims. 

*Vaidt)ekans=Parohita. 
tPrayA6bit>)ftiBS~Expi*tory ceremonies; 




A group of forced converts — re-converted by Arya Samaj, Calicut. 



117' I ■ 
RESOLUTIONS. 

" 1. Cutting the tuft, repeating the Kalitna, ear- 
boring of women and wearing Meplah jackets : — The 
victims in these cases are to take ' panchagavya'* for 
three days at any temple, to make whatever offerings 
they can and to repeat ' Narayana or Siva ' at least 3,000 
times every day. 

2. Circumcision and co-habitation : — The remedy 
to be the same as mentioned above, but for 12 days the 
prayers are to be repeated 12,000 times a day. 

3. Eating food cooked by Moplahs: — The victims 
in this case are to wash their sins off in the holy Sethu 
and to obtain a certificate to that effect from the temple 
authorities or the 'Purohits' and then observe the cere- 
monies prescribed in (1) and (2) for 41 days repeating 
the sacred names 12,000 times a day. 

4. Sins not specified above are to be expiated by 
adopting the ceremonies fixed in (1) above to be con- 
tinued for 21 days repeating Narayana or Siva 12,000 
times a day. 

"It was further resolved that these ceremonies, 
although ordinarily they ought to be done under the 
supervision of the Vaideekans, would be regarded as 
having been duly performed if the victims concerned pro- 
duce a certificate from the owners of the temples or their 
kariasthanst that they have, in fact, observed the rules. 
This is specially intended to bring the ' prayachithams ' 

*Pauchagavya=J=Five produets" or b «ow^(mi|k, gheev 
ottrd, ttrina and dang.). tKMwstb»ag=*AgenW - 



US, i f 

within the power of all sorfe of people who cannot, with- 
out great difficulty, have recourse to Vaideekans. 'Further 
this certificate has to be submitted to the'Zamorin who 
in his turn is to certify formally that the sins above des- 
cribed have been properly expiated and that the persons 
concerned are restored to the condition which they have 
been occupying before the rebellion. 

The rules mentioned above are inapplicable to the 
Brahmin converts." (West Coast Spectator August 22, 
1922;. 

Our thanks are mainly due to the Arya Samaj 
Society for effecting re- conversion of forced converts. 
" When the alarming news of a large number of Hindus 
forcibly converted into Islam reached Punjab, it shocked 
the Hindu public there and Mahatma Hans Raj, Presi- 
dent of the Arya Pradeshaka Prati Nidhi Sabha of the 
Punjab, Sind, and Baluchistan was moved to help these 
unfortunate brethren in Malabar." He sent Arya 
Missionary Pandit Rishi Ram to Calicut and he in 
addition to giving relief to the refugees took steps to 
effect re-conversion of forced converts. " When rebellion 
subsided, Arya Samaj workers proceeded to the rebel 
area and gave relief to those converted families who were 
still keeping back under the fear of rebels. They were 
brought to Calicut and other safe places and re-admitted 
into Hinduism again. A constant agitation was set on 
foot on their behalf with the result that the local gentle- 
men who were doubtful of re-admission took greater 
interest in the matter and advocated- their re-admission 
>n their respective circles of influence. Even aftgr 



119 

re*admission whenever any objection was raised by the 
orthodox people about giving equal treatment to the re- 
admitted persons, the Samaj workers were sent to 
explain matters and to persuade the people to treat them 
as their brethren as before the rebellion. 

The result was that almost all the forced converts 
with the exception of a few stray cases were restored to 
Hinduism, who otherwise would have continued as 
Moplahs or formed some outcaste sections- In the Arya 
Samaj registers alone 1766 cases of forced converts have 
been recorded and if the figures from all relief committees 
were collected, their number is sure to exceed 2500." 
(Pandit Rishi Ram's Letter). 

The work of the Arya Samaj in Malabar was unique : 
forcible conversion commenced with the Mysore conquest 
and during the past hundred years and more it was 
found impossible to effect re-conversion, A few families 
still exist in Malabar whose ancestors, were forcibly con- 
verted during the time of Tippu and who, on his depar- 
ture relapsed to Hinduism but still remain as a separate 
section known as ' Chela Nayars,' without being permit- 
ted to associate with the ordinary Nayars. It was under 
these circumstances that Arya Samaj Society effected 
re-conversion : the converts had given up all hopes and 
to their great relief the Arya Samaj was prepared to put 
them back to the Hindu fold. No attempt would ever 
have been made by the Nambudiri Vaideekans but for 
the foundation laid by the Arya Samaj. 

Hindu Malabar will ever be grateful to the Societv 
and to its representative Pandit Rishi Ram. 



K120 

In view • however !.of • the ^rigidity 1 oi caste roles in 
i Malabar and; the possibility of this re-conversion being 
' called intcquestion by thecaste people, the decision of 
the Zamorin Raja and the Nambudiri Vaidcekans convey- 
ing formal approval of the admission of the converts to 
caste privileges became necessary and we are thankful to 
them for their kind decision and also to Mr. Ri H. Ellis, 
I. C. S^ Collector of Malabar, who" showed great syftipa- 
i thy with! the victims of Moplah fanaticism. 

- It is- a! pity* however 1 that the concession was not 
made applicable t<* the solitary Brahmin *6nvert and it is 
■also a pity that, m in Malabar in spite 1 of the British 
administration for over a hundred years, forcible Conver- 
sions should stiU'eXist. 

A; word- about- the method of conversion and re- 
con version,— 

'iConversion-*Mafl*Bath, clean 'shave' of the "head, 
wearing a Moplah' cap 'and [dress; recitation of ' prayers 
from Koran .called Kalima 1 : then dinner 'with 1 Moplahs, 
cirOrnicisioD' to ; be performed on a convenient date. 

! Wdniari^Bath, •'wearing Moplah somen's jackets 
ated-tolduredcrothes: 11 Re^dtatronof KaKma; food.' Ears 
to be bored round 1 the ear-flaps at a convenient date. 

' Re-COnversion— *The convert removes' his Moslem 
clothes: then bathes and. puts on Hindu white clothes. 
. Repeats the Gayatri and, Vedic- mantras which is recited 
to him by the Arya Missionary,-*— and ,the .convert is 
declared a Hindu. For males, a shave before bath in 
addition. ■■ 




One Hindu family forcibly converted — Re-admitted by Arya Samaj 
with the Society Workers on the sides. 



ctiAhrfeR xn. 
THE HlfltiO-toCSSLEM UNITY. 



"In the respective individualities of the Hindu and 
the Moslem, it was a fact that could not be denied that 
there was something conflicting. Thus the greatest of 
all problems in- India was the making of Islam and 
Hinduism to abide together and this would not come to 
pass by merely preaching Hindu-Maslem Unity.'' (Dr. 
Tagore's Lectures, Madras Mail, October, 3rd 1922.) 

The problem defies solution ; look into the past, 
" Tippu's brutal methods of obtaining converts to Islam 
which drove Rajahs and thousands of their principal 
adherents out of their own country, broke up the social 
organism, and engendered a fierce and abiding hatred 
between Hindus and Mohammedans, and in 1792 when 
the British took over Malabar, this animosity had reach- 
ed a dangerous height, and the foundations of law and 
order had been undermined. South Malabar was in 
particular terrorised by bands of marauding Moplahs 
who found a secure retreat in the jungles of Ernad and 
Walluvanad." (Malabar Gazetteer.) The same ways 
and means : the same sphere of action : the same fierce 
and abiding hatred : and who knows whether the descen- 
dants of the marauding Moplahs of 1 792 were not mem- 
bers of the yebel. army of .1921 ? 

i Since then a series of, fanatical outbreaks took place, 
all directed against Hindus, and with rare exceptions 

16 



122 

within a radius of 15 miles of the Pandalhr Hills of 
Ernad Taluk, where the ignorant and bigoted Moplahs 
congregate. Everything that' a civilised Government 
can MpjPecgi to <£[£fft ^oplabj ^b^a^by 
the British T5overhmcnt. Special schools have been 
established, fpr the Moplah; the ,rebe| area, has been 
opened up, by roads ; but fanaticism, is still , strong in" the 
land and education has not made, any appreciable ad- 
vance in ; spite of the large expenditure incurred, In 
1852 Mr.. Strange . reported that the condition' of the 
Hindus was! post lamentable, * and that* jhe ' prestige of 
the rule of Government had been much shaken in the 
District.' He proposed repressive measures against the 
Moplahs and whole villages were fined but there was no 
improvement. A series of outbreaks took place again, 
one after the other until 1919 in which .year the Moplahs 
murdered for no reason whatever, four Nambudiris and 
an Embrandiri. Agrarian discontent is trotted out on 
every occasion, and even in the present Moplah rebellion, 
an attempt was made to attribute it to agrarian discon- 
tent. The Khilafat Kings, Ali Musaliar and Kunhamad 
Haji, had no agrarian grievances, nor does it appear that 
the several leaders of the rebellion who indulged in law- 
lessness of the worst kind had any such grievances to 
redress. 

Is, there jio way of repressing outbreaks in the 
fanatical zone .?.., •:.!'■. 

In 1852 Mr. T. L. Strange, a former Judge of the 
Sadaf Adalut appears to have suggested the expulsion of 



123 

the Moplahs from Malabar — an extreme and impracti- 
cable step which the Government of Madras considered 
' grotesque ' and which Collector Mr. Conolly considered 
'• uu-iiritish and cruel." (Correspondence in Matlra» 
Mail dated 14th November 1921.) 

The ancestors of Kavnlappara Nayar wisely excluded 
the Moplahs from their jurisdiction of seven villages in 
which no. 'Moolah shall hold land. Similarly, the Nam- 
budiris of 14 desoms known as Pathinalu* Desom in 
Walluvanad Taluk have made it a rule that no land 
should be given to Moplahs in those villages. This has 
been the practice for centuries with the result that there 
is security for the Hindus in the locality. 

There is no use in harping upon the past, the future 
is our concern ; and there is a feeling of despair which is 
deepened when we realise that even in other provinces 
where the Moplah does not exist, and the Hindu is 
numerically stronger than the Moslem and physically' 
not inferior, instances of collision and outrages on 
Hindus are, frequent. The spirit is latent in the Moslem 
but it is only in South Malabar that it bursts out periodi- 
cally. 

' ; ■' The question arises why Ernad, Walluvanad and 
portions of Ponnani in this matter of religious frenzy and 
fanaticism, should remain not- only untamed, but, as it 
would seem, positively untameable, v 

The reasons are given ii> "The Moplahs — a Study," 
written by R.|R. P. in his own • felicitous style and "last 

*Pa*hinalu = Fourteen* 



124 

but not the least, there is always the psychic factor, 
which bulks so large in the case of a community like the 
Moplahs. All over the fanatic rone, there are villages, 
hamlets, mosques, prayer shrines, temples, barns, hills, 
fields and gardens around which soul stirring legends 
and tales have clustered of martyrs, who had forsaken 
all their worldly substance and joys and followed the' way 
which leads to the delights and glories of paradise. 
These tales and legends are kept wonderfully alive. Men 
repeat them squatted by the way-side^ chewing betel 
during the pauses of labour or travel. Women with 
stern faces and eyes that shine with the light of religious 
passion, narrate them by the domestic hearth to their 
children, who drink in every syllable of the thrilling 
stories of heroism and of deeds crowned with the halo of 
the Sayyid or martyr." (W. C. S. 29th June 1922). 

With the certainty of salvation and with the delights 
of paradise (Appendix I) in sight, it is hot surprising that 
fanaticism flourishes in these tracts — fanaticism, the evil 
consequences of which must continue to exist until the 
Hindus become assertive and can present a united front 
against Moplah aggression. There is something 'conflict- 
ing in the respective individualities of the Hindu and the 
Moslem ' and the solution of the problem is a remote and 
even an uncertain, contingency. 

CONCLUSIOH. 

In the preceding pages t have attempted to chronicle 
• the events that transpired during tfie 'Moplah rebellion} 



125 

I have taken care to avoid criticism and controversy. 
I have tried as far as possible, from' mfor'ma r tion 1 available 
in the papers, to trace the origin of the' rebellion: T 
have described briefly the military operations undertaken 
to suppress the rebellion: I have dealt "with the' consti- 
tution of the courts appointed to punish the offenders 
and have also explained ' the steps taken 1 W compensate' 
the sufferers' I have narrated the details' i 6 , f ,| a' 1l few' 
instances of atrocities committed during the period and 
I must leave it to the reader' to judge whether 1 the' 
account given, as it is, is a faithful representation of the 
dreadful period that South Malabar has' passed through. 

I have not proposed any scheme of reconstruction ; 
the idea of reconstruction and o( restoration of the 
country to its normal state is dependant on one factor 
—Hindu-Muslim' tlnity. Where wiser and more ex- 
perienced men have failed to devise means to stop the 
Moplah outrages and to bring about a better understand- 
ing between the two communities,^ do not pretend tb'be 
able to make any proposal; but educate the Moplah', 
give him sufficient work by opening up the country,' keep 
him engaged' and above "want, rule' nirri by 'the' strong 
hand 'fairly 'but' firmly and he 1 will "not 1 Have the'time or 
inclination to brood over fancied insults to his religion 
or imaginary' wrongs to himself.' 1 " 

The Servants of India Society have propounded a 
scheme for reconstruction' in the following terms, " The 
future work in Malabar for public and philanthrophic 
bodies will have io bo economical, educational and locial. 

,, , . • n. •■■.!. ''". ! < jri ti'U i. 1 v in-.': "7 .*t"!.v. — ui. •j.;ia.i 



126 

S<?me means. have to, be devised by which the poverty of 
the .working i and, destitute classes, in the affected area 
has to ,be alfeyiated. /Since, , large ;caphal, and costly 
expert management ■, are. out of , the question, the co- 
operative movernen^ might be tried with , advantage for 
encouraging thrift, starting srna^licottage industries suited 
to difljerenj locates, and), in, general ,tt} promote and en- 
courage production, on a small., scale*. .The importance 
ojf ; education, in addition to, and as distinguished , from 
mere, Jiterapy, in expanding Jhe minds of the, people so 
t^at jhey may.respect .each others .religious feelings and 
rights and take ( an intelligent and practipal interest in 
the larger civic life of their places is very urgent, Efforts 
have ,to be made , also to improve the health and the 
general standard of living ampng the masses of, the popu- 
lation I"' (West bo^rS/»cc/a<or, 18th January '23,/ 

( These objects, are to be carried out. by lectures* by 
libraries and reading rooms, by, co-operative movement 
and by practical education. 

,The scheme is a laudable one,^ but it is rather a 
large order. Whether it will tend to reconcile the two 
Communities and, improve the situation . tjme alone will 
show; If one t may may look back to the ^period of 
Kalapam* (Mysore Conquest 17^6-1^92) t^aj took, place, 
in Malabar more than a century ago, he could see the 
Zamonn Rajah setting fire to his own palace and im- 
molating' himself for fear of disgrace at the hands of 

Hyier'Aft of Mysore (April 1766) ; he> could ^witness, the 
.lu i 'w* t> " n !■■ » ■ • '• — "■'' ■■ t '* L» i ''" i . ' ti : 1 ? ' — L: — -^.~-U.l — '.. _'-_'-5.' 
*K»lapam=ohaos, referring to toe period of Mysore Conquest. 



127 

the forcible conversion of a Rajah of Parappanad : and 
of "Tichera Terupar," of Nilambur and also of 200 
Brahmins under the orders of Tippu of Mysore (August 
1788); he could hear Tippu's repeated vows that he 
would honour the whole of Malabar with Islam (1790), 
and he could follow the Rajahs the Nambudiris and the 
Nairs during their flight to Travancore — the haven of 
refuge during that dreadful period. 

Kalapam repeated itself in the year nineteen-hund- 
red and twenty-one and it was a realistic representation 
of the original Kalapam with the place of refuge trans- 
ferred to Calicut. Had Tippu not been forced to surren- 
der Malabar to the East India Company by the treaty of 
Seringapatam on 18th March 1792, this district would 
have been to-day a Mohammedan country, and had 
Capt. McEnroy who commanded the small force that 
proceeded to relieve Malapuram on 26th August '21 not 
been successful at Pookotur the whole of the Ernad Taluk 
would have been Mohammedan as every Hindu would 
have been converted. In spite of past experiences, and of 
the uncertain future, and in view of the settlement of the 
Khilafat question by the Angora Government without 
assistance from India, I would hope that the Hindus and 
the Moslems will recognise the necessity of mutual 
toleration, if not amity, and work together for the resto- 
ration of happiness and prosperity to their beloved 
Motherland — the Land of Kerala. 

FINIS. 




FORCED CONVERTS — IN MOSLEM DRESS. 



APPENDIX I. 

PAST MOPLAH OUTRAGES. 



THE DELIGHTS OF PARADISE.— A SONG. 

" The pleasures of wealth »r of family are not equal to 
an atom' of celestial happiness. Our most venerable Prophet 
has said that those who die in battle can see the houris who 
will come to witness the figlti. There is nothing in this 
wotfd to compare with the beauty of the houris. The 
splendour of the sun, of the moon, and of the lightning is 
darkness compared with the beauty of their hair which 
hangs over their shoulders. Their checks, eyes, face, eye- 
brows, forehead, head are incomparably lovely. Their 
mouths are like corals of gold, their teeth like the seeds of 
the thali flowers. It is not possible for the mind to con- 
ceive the loveliness of their breasts and shoulders. If 
they spit in the sea, tlte salt water becomes as sweet as 
honey, as fragrant as attar. If they were to come down 
to this earth, and smite, the sun, moon and stars would 
be eclipsed. Mortals would die if they but heard the music 
pf their voices. When they wear red silk bordered with 
green lace of seventy folds, their skins, muscles and bones 
can be seen through. Such is the splendour of their body. 
If they clap their hands, the clash of their jewels will be 
heard at a distance of 50, years! journey. They clap their 
hands, dance and $ing, as they come like the swans to tJie 
battle-field. If a human being were to see tlieir beauty, their 

17 



2 

dance, or their smile he would die on the spot. Gently 
they touch the wounds of those who die in battle, they rub 
away the blood and cure the pain, they kiss and embrace 
the martyrs, give them to drink of the sweet water of 
heaven and gratify their every wish. A horse caparisoned 
with precious stones will be brought and a voice will 
say : — Let my men mount : let them dance with the cele- 
stial houris. Then the celestial coverings will be placed 
on their heads, they will mount the beautiful horse which 
will dance and leap and take them to heaven, where they 
will live in unbounded joy." West Coast Spectator July 
6th '22. 

This is the translation of part of a song 
composed in sacred memory of the 47 Sayyidakkals 
(martyrs) who in the first decade of the last 
century fell fighting in defence of a Mosque against 
the retainers of Para Nambi, a landlord of Malappuram; the 
great Malappuram Nercha (festival) is celebrated annually 
in their memory and every Moplah out on the warpath 
carries with him whenever possible a copy of the song, a 
portion of which is quoted above. This is the first re- 
corded out-break during British Supremacy. 

The next recorded outbreak was in 1836, and^ then 
the series continued until 1919, two years before the 
Moplah rebellion, with occasional intervals. A list is 
appended. 

2. November 26, 1836. Pandalur, Brnad. Kallingal 
Kunholan stabbed one Chakku Pannikar of the Kanisan 
caste who subsequently died of his wounds. He also 



wounded three others and was pursued by the Tahsildar 
and others. Shot on 28th Id. 

3. April, 15, 1837. Kalpatta, Ernad. Ali Kutti of 
Chengara Amsom inflicted severe wounds on one Narayana 
Moosad and took post in his own shop, where he was 
attacked by the Tahsildar and Taluk peons and shot by 
the Taluk Police on the next day. 

4. , April, 5, 1839. Pallipuram, Walluvanad. Thora- 
yam Pulakal Athan and another, of Pallipuram Amsom, 
Walluvanad Taluk killed one Kellil Raman and then set 
fire to and burnt a Hindu Temple, took post in another 
temple and there they were attacked by the Tahsildar 
and his peons and were shot by a Taluk peon. 

5. April 6, 1839. Mambattodi Kuttiathan severally 
wounded one Paru Taragan and a Taluk peon. Cap- 
tured and sentenced to transportation for life. 

6. April 19, 1840. Irimbulli, Ernad. Parathodiyil 
Ali Kutti severely wounded one Odayath Kunhunni Nayar 
and another, and set fire to Kidangil temple. He was 
shot dead by a Taluk peon on the following day. 

7. April 5, 1841, Pallipuram, Walluvanad. Tumba 
Mannil Kunyunnian and eight others killed one Perum- 
balli Nambudiri and another at Pallipuram, burnt the 
house of the latter victim, as well as four other houses. 
The Moplahs were attacked on the 9th idem and killed 
by a party of the 36th Regiment Native Infantry and 
Police peons. 

8. Novenber 13th, 1841. Kaidotti Padil Moidin 
Kutti and seven others killed one Tott'asseri Tachu 



Pannikar and a peon, took post in a Mosque, set the 
Police at defiance for three days, and were joined by 
three more fanatics on the morning of the 17th idem. 
They were attacked by a party of 40 Sepoys of the 9th 
Regiment N. I. and were all killed in the fight. 

9. November 77, 1841. Pallipuram, Walluvanad- 
On the 17th of the same month some Moplahs estimated 
at 2,000 set at defiance a Police party on guard over the 
spot where the above criminals have been buried and 
forcibly carried off the bodies and interred them with 
honours at a Mosque. Twelve of these were convicted 
and punished. 

10. December 27, 1841, Ernad. Melemanna Kun- 
yattan, with 7 others killed one Talappil Chakku Nair 
and another and took post in the Adhigari's house. They 
rushed upon the Police and villagers who had surrounded 
the house, were killed, their bodies being brought to 
Calicut and buried under the gallows. 

11. October 19, 1843. Tirurangadi. Kunnancheri 
Ali Attan and 5 others killed one Kaprat Krishna Panni- 
kar, the Adhigari of Tirurangadi and proceeded at the 
suggestion of a seventh Moplah who joined afterwards to 
the house of a Nair in Cherur, and posted themselves in 
it. A Military detachment attacked the Moplahs oe*24th 
morning but upon the latter rushing out, the Sepoys took 
to flight. The fanatics were killed by the Taluk Peons 
and the villagers and the sepoys court-martialled. 

12. December 4, 1843. A Nair labourer was found 
dead with ten deep wounds on his body and his murder 
was believed to be the work of Moplah fanatics. 



4 

13. December 11, 7843, Pandicad. Anavattat Soli- 
man and nine others killed one Karukammana Govind 
Moosad, the Adhigari of Pandicad, and a servant of his ; 
denied two temples and took post in a house. Troops 
were deputed but the Moplahs rushed at them and were 
killed. 

14. December 19, 1843. A peon was found 
with his hand and he head all but cut off and the per- 
petrators were supposed to be Moplah fanatics. 

15. May 26, 1849. Ernad. Chakalakkal Kammad 
wounded one Kannancheri Cheru and another and took 
post in a Mosque. The Tahsildar proceeded to the 
Mosque in the hope of inducing him to surrender but he 
rushed forward with a knife and was killed by a peon. 

16. August 25, 1849. Ernad and Walluvanad. 
Torangal Unniyan killed one Paditodi Theyunni and with 
Attan Gurukkal and others killed three persons and took 
post in the temple at Manjeri : defiled the temple and 
partly burnt it. Ensign Wyse's party with the exception 
of four men who were all killed refused to advance and 
broke up and fled. Ensign Wyse was killed in this 
engagement. That night the fanatics proceeded to 
AngadijMram temple and were followed by a detachment 
H. M.'s 94th Regiment and another of the 39th Regi- 
ment, Native infantry. The insurgents came to the 
attack and were completely annihilated, leaving 64 dead 

17. October 2, 1850. Pu'iyakadc, Ernad. The sons 
of Periambath Attan, the Moplah Adhigari, bad concerted, 
with others to kill one Mungamdambalatt Narayana 



Moosad and to devote themselves to death. Security was 
taken from nine individuals. 

18. January 5, 1851. Payyanad, Ernad. Choon- 
dyamoochikal Attan attacked and wounded severely a 
clerk, named Raman Menon and shut himself up in the 
Inspector's house setting the Police at defiance. The 
Tahsildar tried to induce him to surrender but he rushed 
out and fired at the opposing party and was shot dead* 

19. January 17, 785/. Three Moplahs were re- 
ported as contemplating an assault. Security taken. 

20. April 15, 1851. Illikot Kunyunni and five 
others were reported as designing to break out and kill 
Kotuparambat Komu Menon and another. No evidence 
and they were discharged ; but the information was too 
true. 

,21. August 22, 1851, Kulathur, Wallavanad. Tht 
above said, Komu Menon and his servant were killed 
by 6 Moplahs who with three othere also killed 
Kadakottil Nambudiri and Komu Menon 's brother 
Raman Menon. Severely wounded Mundangara 
Rarichan Nair who subsequently died. They set fire to 
Rama Menon's and Chengara Variyar's house.«**They 
then proceeded to Kulathur and murdered the old 
Kulathur Variyar and two servants. 

Troops were requisitioned and the fanatics rushed 
out. Seventeen fanatics were killed. Four European 
Privates and one Subhadar were killed in the encounter* 



22. Octobers, 1851. Nenmlni, Walluvanad. Tottin- 
gal Mammad and three other Moplahs designed to commit 
an outrage. Security taken. 

23. October 27, 1851. Irimbuli, Ernad. Security 
taken from two Moplahs who intended to join the late 
Kulathur outbreak. 

24. January 4, 1852. Mattanur, Kottayam. Choriyot 
Mayan and fourteen others supported by a mob of two- 
hundred Moplahs butchered all the inmates; 18 in 
number, of Kalattil Kesavan Tangal's house and extir- 
pated the family, denied the temples, burnt houses and 
finally fell on January 8th 1852 in a desperate attack on 
the house of Kalliad Nambiar. 

25. January 5, 1852. Security taken from five 
Moplahs. 

26. February 28, 1852. Ernad. One Triyakaltil 
Chekku and 15 other Moplahs of Melmuri and Kilmuri 
Amsoms set out " to die and create a fanatical outbreak." 
Security was taken from them. 

27. April-May, 1852. Ernad. Two Cherumas after 
embracing Muhamadanism returned to their original 
faith. These Cherumas were then working for Kudilil 
Kanrni^Kutti Nayar who being a peon was transferred 
from Ernad Taluk to Ponnani and subsequently to Calicut 
to avert the impending danger to his life. The Cherumas 
were also transferred to other Taluks as their presence 
was considered a source of disturbance. 

28. August 9, 1852. Kurumbranad. Three Moplahs 
took up a position in the house of a village accountant 



(Puttur) and had . resolved to die as Sabjda (martyr). 
They wounded a Brahmin and were killed by the Police 
on the 12th August, two of whom received wounds. 

29. September 16, 1853, Angadipwam, Walluvo- 
uad. Kuaaumal Moidin and Cherukavil Moidin murdered 
Chengalary Vasudevan Nambudiri and not getting any 
recruits, made their appearance on the top of a hill near 
Angadipuram. The Tahsildar proceeded there with his 
peons but. the fanatics rushed on them. Eighteen shots 
were fired and the elder man was brought down wounded ; 
the younger being unhurt fell on the peons and villagers 
by whom he was dispatched. 

30. September 12, 1855. Calicut. Three Moplahs 
Valasseri. Emalu, Puliyakunat Tenu, Cbemban Moidin 
Kutti and Vellattadayyatta Parambil Moidin escaped from 
their working party of Jail convicts', at Calicut and pro- 
ceeded to Walluvanad. They roamed about the country 
and pn 10th September reached Calicut, On 12th they 
murdered Collector Mr. Conolly at his Bungalow. 

The assassins were shot on 17th September by a 
detachment of Major Haley's Police Corps and a part 
No. 5 Company of H. M*s. 74th High landers. 

A fine of Rs. 38,331-8-0 was collected Irtiaa the 
villages implicated in the outrage and Rs. 30,936-13-10 
paid to Mrs. Conolly. 

31. November 1855. Two Moplahs, who had de- 
serted from the Malabar Police Corps, were suspected of 
complicity with the murderers of Mr. Conolly and were 



required to produce securities for good behaviour and 
were confined, on the failure to give securities, for 3 years- 
They were afterwards permitted to leave the country. 

32. August 1857, Pomnala, Ernad. Poovadan 
Kunbappa Haji and 7 others were suspected of conspiring 
to revenge the supposed insult offered to their religion by 
the relapse of a Nair convert, and to make an attempt to 
rid the country of the Kaffirs (Europeans) representing 
Jthat ifche .Government was weakened by the mutiny in 
■Northern India. The conspirators were surprised and 
taken prisoners and seven of them deported under the 
Moplah Outrages Act. 

33. Feb. 1858, Tirutangadi, Ernad. A Moplah who 
purchased a piece. of ground which was the scene of the 
death struggles of the Moplahs killed in the outbreak of 
19th : October '43, had ibuilt a small mosque there and 
had instituted a day for holding a, festival. The number 
of visitors bad increased and the feast assumed a threaten- 
ing character. The Moplah purchaser and two Mullas 
.were deported. 

34. I860, North Malabar. Two Moplahs were de- 
ported for short terms Jor threatening the life of an 
Adhigjri. 

35. Ylth February, 1864, Aldmuri, Ernad. During 
tRamzan feast ft Moplah named Attan Kutti in a fit of 

/feligious i fanaticism stabbed and caused the death of one 
;NQttalEaunikkarwhom he found in the house of a Tiyyan, 
his intended victim. Attan was sentenced to be i hanged 

IS 



to 

as an ordinary malefactor, and his confederate deported, 
the village being fined to the extent of Rs. 2037. 

36. On 17th September 1865. Three Moplahs were 
convicted of murdering one Shangu Nair of Nenmini 
Amsam, Walluvanad, and it was thought that the murder 
was committed from personal and private motives: but a 
religious cloak was thrown around the affair by the per- 
formance three days before the murder of a Muvalad 
ceremony at which several persons were present who 
knew of the intended murder. Six of them ' were 
deported. 

17. 8th September, 1873, Parol, Walluvanad 
Kunhappa Musaliar visited the Velichapad or Oracle of 
Tuthekil temple, struck him. several •blows with a sword 
and left him for dead. They proceeded to Kolathur 
and attacked a member of Kolathur Varier's family and 
mortally wounded him. Troops from Malappuram sur- 
rounded the house and the fanatics attacked them. Of 
the nine fanatics 8 were killed and one " a mere child " was 
wounded and -afterwards recovered. The villages con- 
cerned were fined Rs. 42,000. 

38. 27th March, 1877. Irimbulli, Ernad. ^jAvinji- 
purath Kunhi Moideen and four other Moplas designed 
to commit a fanatical outrage as a Nair had debauched 
the wife of one of the men. Two of the conspirators 
elected to leave Malabar for Mecca to which place they 
were sent and Kunhi Moideen was bound over for good 
behaviour. 



11 

39. June, 1879, Paral, Walluvanad. Kunnanath 
Kunhi Moidu incited 6 young men to commit an outrage 
but before accomplishing their object they were arrested- 
The ring-leader was deported and the other 6 bound 
over. 

40. Sept. 9, 1880, Melattur, Walluvanad. M. Ali 
deliberately cut the throat of a Cheruma lad who had 
become a convert to Islam and had reverted. He then 
wounded a potter on the next day ; he went to the house 
of onq of his intended victims, when a watchman shot 
Ali in the breast and killed him. The amsom was fined 
Rs. 4,200 and 7 Moplahs were deported : nine required 
to give security. 

41. Oct. 31, 1883, Pandkad, Ernad. Asarithodi 
Moideen Kutti attacked Pulikkal Raman with a sword 
and pursued him. He however, threw down the sword 
at the intervention of his brother and another Moplah. 
He was tried and acquitted on the ground of insanity. 

42. March 4, 1884, A petition was received stat- 
ing that Vakayil Moideen Kutti and another were 
conspiring to murder one Appathara Pattar. Enquiries 
were made, two ringleaders were deported and two had 
to fur:\J£ h security to keep the peace. 

43. June, 18, '84. Kannancheri Raman who had 
previously embraced and subsequently renounced Islam 
was attacked in a most savage manner by two Moplahs. 
He however made his escape. Three Moplahs were 
transported for life and three others deported. A fine of 
Rs. 15,000 was imposed on the amsom, out of which 



12 

1,000 was to be paid as compensation to Raman for his 
wounds. 

44. Dee. 28, 1884. This proposal rankled in the 
minds of the Moplahs and one Kolakadan Kuttyassan 
and 1 1 others proceeded to the house of Raman's brother 
Choyikutti who was greeted by a volley of firearms 
carried by the Moplahs. Choyikutty and his son were 
wounded and the Moplahs set fire to his house. They left 
Malappuram and on the way mortally wounded a Brah- 
min and proceeded to Trikalur Temple. The troops and 
the police surrounded the temple and opened fire. 
They effected an entrance by blowing in the doer, placing 
dynamite cartridges against it. 

Of the twelve fanatics, three were still alive, but two 
of them were speechless and died immediately ; the third 
man lived about twenty-four hours. The casualties 
amonj the Military were one private killed and one 
officer and one private wounded. 

45. 1st May 1885. A gang of Mappilas, consisting 
of T. V. Veran Kutti and eleven others broke open the 
house of aCheruman (slave caste) called Kutti Kariyanand 
murdered him, his wife, and four of their children, and set 
fire to the house and a neighbouring temple. The^pctirn 
had become a convert to Islam many years ago and had 
reverted to his original religion fourteen years ago. 
The Moplahs retreated during the night of 2nd May la 
their own country side, and in the early morning of the 
third they seized the house of a wealthy Nambudiri 
Brahmin, landlord of Ponxnundam, Ponnani. 



13 

On the afternoon of that day they were attacked by 
a party of the South Wales Borderers from Malappuram. 
They opened fire from a window in the top storey of that 
house at the military and wounded four of the men ; 
upon this the fire was returned and as it afterwards 
turned out, the few shots poured in at the windows of the 
room to silence the fire killed all twelve persons. 

46. llth August, 1885. A Nfappilla named Unni 
Mammad entered the house of Krishna Pisharodi under 
the pretence of buying paddy. At that ti me the Pisha- 
rodi was bathing. Mammad Unni rushed past the 
attendants and with one blow of a hatchet, inflicted a 
mortal wound on Pisharodi's head. He was immediately 
seized and disarmed, and was after trial in the usual 
course eventually, hanged. 

47. In 1894, a gang of Moplahs in Pandicad started 
on the war-path. They wandered about; defiling and 
burning temples where-ever they could, besides attacking 
and killing such Nairs and Brahmins as fell in their way. 
The troops and the Police at last came up with them in a 
temple, when they sallied out with their usual fury and 
had all "to be shot. 

-JS " The appalling tragedy of 1896 was unprece- 
dented as well for the number of fanatics that took part 
in it as for the swift and terrible. retribution that over* took 
them. The saddest part of the whole affair was its want - 
of reason. The few survivors could point to no single- 
grievance that would bear examination. On 25-2-1896 a 
gang of twenty Moplahs went out on the • war-path from 



14 

Chembrasseri Amsom and for five days in ever increasing 
numbers terrorised the country-side ; Hindus were mur- 
dered or their ' Kudumis ' cut off, and they were sum- 
marily converted to Islam. Temples were desecrated and 
burnt, Houses were looted in the search for food, money 
and arms. Finally on March 1st hard pressed by the 
pursuit of the troops, the fanatics entered the Manjeri 
Karanammulpad's temple, determined to make their last 
stand in a spot hallowed in their eyes as the scene of the 
first triumphant act of the tragedy of 1849. Twenty 
soldiers were guarding the treasury on the hill opposite 
the .temple, and with them shots were exchanged. At 
9 A. M., the District Magistrate with the main body of 
the troops came up in great anxiety for the safety of the 
treasury-guard, and occupied a hill over-looking the 
temple from a distance of some 750 yards across a deep 
valley covered with trees and bushes. The troops opened 
fire at once, and the fanatics, instead of taking shelter, 
deliberately courted death offering themselves as a target 
to the bullets on the open platform of the temple ' howl- 
ing, shouting, waving their arms and firing off their guns.' 
Advancing steadily with frequent volleys over the broken 
ground, the troops came near enough to the Moplah 
stronghold to call upon the fanatics to surrender. VOarse 
cries of defiance were their only answer and pushing on, 
the soldiers entered the temple almost without opposi- 
tion. A horrible sight met their eyes. Within the 
narrow precincts were filled up the bodies of ninety-two 
Moplahs. Some were still breathing, but the great majo- 
rity were dead, and at ieast twenty had their throats cat , 



IS 

from ear to ear. They had been murdered by their com- 
rades to prevent their being captured alive. A small 
gang of seven ' Sahids ' were still at large, but by March 
13th they had all been arrested or shot by the Police and 
the outbreak was at an end ". (Malabar Gazetteer). 

49. In April 1898, the Moplahs rose in revolt in 
Payyanad. But the rising proved abortive and the fanatics 
surrendered without struggle at the exhortation of 
Pookoya Tangal from Malappuram. 

50. In 191 5 an attempt was made on the life of 
Mr. Innes, the District Magistrate, who had a narrow 
escape from being shot. The Moplahs concerned in this 
outrage and some other fanatics indulged in the usual 
course of murder and arson until shot down by the 
Special Police Force. 

51. In February 1919, a gang of fanatics headed 
by a dismissed Moplah Head-Constable, began to give 
trouble. Following their usual methods they broke into 
and denied the temples, killed almost every Brahmin and 
Nair who fell in their way and finally died in resistance 
to the Police Force sent out against them. In this one 
outbreak four Brahmins namely three Nambudiries and 
one l^mbrandiri, and two Nairs were put to death by the 
fanatics. 

August 1921. The Moplah Rebellion. 



APPENDIX II. 

MR. GANDHI'S YISITTO CALICUT. 



Messrs. Gandhi and Shaukat AH arrived in Calicut 
on 18th August 1920 and at 6-30 p. M. addressed a 
gathering of about 20,000 people on the Vellayil beach, 
Calicut. 

MAHATMA GANDHI'S SPEECH. 

Spirit of Non-Co-Operation. 
1 do expect that we shall succeed if we understand 
the spirit of non-co-operation. The Lieutenant Gover- 
nor of Burma himself has told us that Britain retains 
the hold on India not by force of arms but by the co- 
operation of the people of India. He has given us the 
remedy for any wrong Government may do to the 
people, knowingly or unknowingly, and so long as we 
co-operate with that Government we become the sharers 
of the wrong. But a wise subject never tolerates the 
hardship that a Government impose against their declar- 
ed will. I venture to submit to this great meeting that 
the Government of India and the Imperial Government 
have done a double wrong to India and if we are a self- 
respecting nation conscious of its rights, conscious of its 
responsibilities and conscious of its duties, it is not 
proper that we should stand the humiliations that both 
these Governments have imposed upon us. The Imperial 

19 



18 

Government have knowingly flouted religious sentiments 
dearly cherished by the 70 millions of Mussalmans. 
THE KHILAFAT QUESTION. 

I claim to have studied the Khilafat question in a 
special manner. I claim to have understood the Musal- 
man feelings and I am here to declare that in the 
Khilafat question, the British Government have wounded 
the sentiments of Mussalmans, as they have not done 
before. The Gospel of non-co-operation is preached to 
them and if they had not accepted it, there would have 
been bloodshed in India by this time. I am free to 
confess the spilling of blood would not help their cause. 
But a man, who is in a state of rage, whose heart is 
lacerated does not count on the results of his actions. 
So much for Khilafat wrong. I propose to take you for a 
moment to the Punjab, the northern end of India and 
what have both Governments done for the Punjab ? I am 
free to confess again that the crowds in Amristar went 
mad for a time. They were goaded to madness by a wicked 
administration but no madness on the part of the people can 
justify the spilling of innocent blood and what have 
they paid for it ? I venture to submit that no civilised 
Government' would have made the people to p&y the 
penalty that had been inflicted on the Punjab. Innocent 
men were passed through mock trials and imprisoned for 
life. Amnesty granted to them was of no consequence. 
Innocent and unarmed men who knew nothing of what 
was to happen were butchered in cold blood without the 
slightest notice. The modesty of women in Jallian 



19 

Wala who had not done the slightest wrong to any man 
was seriously outraged. I want you to understand what 
I mean by outrage ? Their veils were insolently remo- 
ved by an officer with his stick. Men who had not done 
any wrong were made to crawl on the ground with their 
bellies and all these wrongs remain unavenged up to 
this time. If it was the duty of the Government of 
India to punish men for incendiarism and murder of 
innocent persons it was doubly their duty to punish their 
officers who were guilty of serious wrong. But in the face 
of these official wrongs committed with the greatest delibe" 
ration, we have the humiliating spectacle of the House 
of Lords supporting these wrongs. It is this double 
wrong, done to India, that we want to get redressed 
and it is our bounden duty to get it redressed. 
We have prayed, we have petitioned and we have passed 
resolutions. 

Mr. Mohammed Ali, supported by his friends, is now 
waiting for justice in Europe. He has pleaded the cause 
of Islam, the cause of the Mussalmans of India, in a 
most manful manner. But his pleadings have fallen 
upon deaf ears. We have his word for it that whilst 
France and Italy have shown great sympathy for the 
cause of Islam it is the British Ministers who have not 
shown sympathy. It shows which way the British Mini- 
sters and present holders of Office in India wished to 
deal with the people. There is no good-will, there is no 
desire to placate public opinion. The people of India 
must have a remedy for redressing this double wrong. 



20 

The method of the West is violence. Whenever people 
of the West have felt wrong justly or unjustly, they rebel 
and spill blood. As I have said in my letter to the 
Viceroy, half of India does not believe in the remedy of 
violence. The other half is too weak to offer it. But 
the whole of India is deeply grieved and it is for that 
reason that I venture to suggest to the people the remedy 
of non-co-operation. I consider it to be perfectly harm- 
less, absolutely constitutional and yet perfectly efficacious. 
It is a remedy, if properly adopted will end in victory. 
Victory is a certainty in it. And it is the age-old remedy 
of self-sacrifice. Are the Mussalmans of India who feel 
the great wrong done to them prepared for self-sacrifice ? 
If we desire to compel the Government to the will of the 
people, as we must, the only remedy open to us is non-co- 
operation. ,. If th e Mussalmans of India offer non-co- 
operation to Government in order to secure justice on the 
Khilafat. it is the duty of every Hindu to co-operate with 
their Mostem brethren. I consider the eternal friendship 



between Hindus and Mussalmans as infinitely more im- 
portant than the British connection. I therefore venture 
to suggest that if they like to live with unity with 
Mussalmans, it is now that they have got the best oppor- 
tunity and that such an opportunity would not come for 
a century. I venture to suggest that if the Government of 
India and the Imperial Government come to know that 
there is a great determination behind this great nation 
in order to secure redress for the Khilafat and Punjab 
wrongs, the Government would then do justice to us. 



21 

The Mussalmans of India will have to commence the first 
stage of non-co-operation in real earnest. If you may 
not help Government, you may not receive favours from 
the Government. I consider that the titles of Honour 
are titles of disgrace. We must therefore surrender all 
titles and resign all honorary offices. It will constitute 
an emphatic disapproval of the leaders of the people 
against the actions of the Government. Lawyers must 
suspend practice, boys should not receive instructions from 
schools aided by Government or controlled by Govern- 
ment. The emptying of schools would constitute the dis- 
approval of the middle classes of the people of India. 
Similarly have I ventured to suggest a complete boycott 
of the Reformed Councils. That will be an emphatic de- 
claration on the part of the representatives of people and 
the electorate that they do not like to elect their repres- 
entatives. We must equally decline to offer ourselves as 
recruits for the Police and the Military. It is impossible 
for us to go to Mesopotamia and offer Police or -Military 
assistance. The last item in the first stage of non-co- 
operation is Swadeshism. Swadeshi is intended, not so 
much as to bring pressure on Government but to show 
the extent of self-sacrifice on the part of every man, 
woman, and child. When one-fourth of India has its 
self-respect at stake, when the whole of India has its 
justice at stake, we must forego silk from Japan, Calico 
from Manchester and French lace from France. We 
must resolve to be satisfied with cloth woven by the 
humble weavers of India in their cottage homes. A 



22 

hundred years ago when our tastes were not in foreign 
products we were satisfied with cloth produced by men 
and women of India. If I could revolutionise the taste 
of India and make it return to its ancient state, the whole 
world would recognise the cult of renunciation: that is 
the first stage in non-co-operation. I hope it is as easy 
for you as it is easy for me to see that India is capable of 
undertaking the first stage of non-co-operation. 

I therefore do not intend to take you through the 
other three stages of non-co-operation. I would like you 
to rivet your attention proparly into the first stage. You 
will have noticed that two things are necessary in order 
to go to the first stage — an absolutely perfect spirit of 
non-violence is indispensable for successes and only a 
little measure of self-sacrifice. I pray to God that He 
will give the people of India sufficient courage and wis- 
dom to recognise the virtue of non-co-operation. 

And I hope that in a few days we shall see some 
result from your activities in Calicut in connection with 
non-co-operation. 

Mr. Shaukat Ali's address was confined to a special 
app3al to the Mussalmans with regard to the Khilafat 
question. #^ 

Mr. K. P. Raman Menon on behalf of the people of 
Calicut presented a purse of Rs. 2,500 to Mahatma Gandhi 
towards the Khilafat funds which gift was accepted with 
thanks.' (VV. C. Reformer dated 20th August '20). 



APPENDIX III. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE DISTRICT 
MAGISTRATE, CALICUT. 



DATED STH FEBRUARY. 1921. 

E. F. Thomas, Esq., I. C. S., 

District Magistrate of Malabar, Calicut. 

Order under Section 144 C. P. C. 

" The District Magistrate has received information 
that it is under contemplation to hold a series of Khilafat 
meetings in Ernad Taluk and that by the holding of these 
meetings there is immediate danger that the feelings of 
the more ignorant Moplahs will be inflamed against not 
only Government but also against the Hindu Jenmis of 
the Taluk, though the ostensible object of the meetings 
may be to preach non-violent agitation. It has been re- 
ported that there is a probability that the result of such 
meetings will be something more than a tendency to a 
disturbance of the public tranquility and that there may 
result riot and danger to human life : the District Magis- 
trate is satisfied from his knowledge of the Ernad Taluk 
and of the tendencies of the Moplahs of that part of the 
District that the report is not unfounded and is confirmed 
in his opinion by the fact that one of the movers in this 
enterprise comes of a family with out-break traditions and 
has been suspected in previous outbreaks. Variankunnath 



24 

Kunhamad Haji is referred to. The other persons likely 
and reported to be concerned in organising such meetings 
are two ex- Vakils who must by their own act seek a live- 
lihood by agination regardless of what may be results. It 
is reported that a meeting is to be convened at Nellikuth 
on the ?th iostertf, and as this, is a, case of emergency it is 
hereby ordered that. Variankunnath Kunhamad Haji, 
2. Madhavan Nair, ,3, U. Gopala Menorj and the local 
leaders of the Khilafat movement whoever they may be 
are prohibited from convening or speaking at any public 
meeting in the Taluk of Ernad (W. C. S. 8th Feb. *2l). 



APPENDIX IV. 

i . . . 

MR. YAKUB HASAN'S ARRIVAL. 



"West Coast Spectator" Dated 15th Feb. 1921. 
Mr. Yakub Hasan arrived here by today's mail. Ela- 
borate arrangements had been made for according him 
. a fitting reception and accordingly there were present at 
the station a large number of Muhammedans and Hindus, 
who included all the leaders. A band of Khilafat 
Volunteers paraded on the platform to preserve peace and 

order. ' ' 

ORDER SERVED. 

Immediately after his arrival, Sub-Inspector San- 
jeeva Menbn of the Calicut town presented a copy of the 
following order of the District Magistrate to Mr. Yakub 
Hasan who refused to accept it and asked the Sub- 
Inspector to present it at his residence. Accordingly the 
order was served at his residence a little later. Mr. Yakub 
Hasan is accompanied by his wife. They are the guests 
of Mr. Zuahobraila Sahib during their stay in Calicut. 

" ^Vhereas it has been made to appear to me that as 
a rjsult of several political meetings, (professedly on 
Khilafat and Non-co-operation) held in the Malabar 
District notably in Calicut, Manjeri, Tirurangadi, Kun- 
dotti, Angadipuram, Ponnani and Tellicherry and of the 
Speeches made at such meetings, persons lawfully em- 
ployed have been intimidated and annoyed in many ways 



26 

and obstructed in their peaceful pursuits and have been 
threatened with annoyance and obstruction and the 
feelings of the more ignorant inhabitants, Moplahs of the 
District, have been more likely to be inflamed against the 
Government and whereas in my opinion, the continuance 
of the holding of such meetings will have the immediate 
effect of disturbing the public tranquility and may very 
likely lead to riots and affrays, and whereas in my opinion, 
a speedy prevention of such meetings is in the circum- 
stances desirable and whereas I am informed that a poli- 
tical meeting is to be held at Calicut on or about the 15th 
or 16th February, I do hereby prohibit the holding of 
the said meetings and strictly warn and enjoin on you 
not to take part in it." 

Tanur, February 15. The very grand arrangements 
made here for the reception of Mr. Yakub Hasan was mar- 
red by the order of the District Magistrate prohibiting the 
holding of meetings here, which was torn tomed through- 
out Tanur this morning. A huge pandal had been put up 
to hold the proposed Khilaf at meeting while arrange- 
ments have been made to feed a large number of people. 
On the arrival of the train at this station, Mr. Yakub 
Hasan alighted from his compartment and shook hands 
with the leaders of the Mussalman community who had 
assembled on the platform. Before the train left the 
station, Mr. Yakub Hasan was garlanded. 

ARREST OF YAKUR HASAN AND OTHERS. 
A conference of leaders was held at the residence of 
Mr. Yakub Hasan, and it appeared to have been decided 



27 

to hold a Khilafat meeting on beach last evening in con- 
travention of the District Magistrate's order, prohibiting 
such meetings. 

ARREST. 

Yesterday afternoon, the District Superintendent and 
the Deputy Superintendent of Police arrested Messrs. 
Yakub Hasan, K. Madhavan Nair, U. Gopala Menon and 
Moideen Koya and the following is the copy of the order 
served on them at the time of their arrest : — 

" Orders under sections 107 and 114 C. P. C. Where- 
as orders were served on, 1. Yakub Hasan, 2. K. Madha- 
van Nair, 3. U. Gopala Menon, 4. P. Moideen Koya law- 
fully promulgated under Section 144 C. P. C. prohibiting 
them from holding a political meeting at Calicut on or 
about the 16th instant and whereas it has come to my 
knowledge that the first mentioned in consultation with 
the counter-petitioners 2 and 4 and others has decided to 
disobey the prohibitory order thus lawfully promulgated 
will inevitably lead to a breach of the peace and disturb 
the public tranquility I now as provided by section 107 
C. P. C. call upon the counter petitioners named above 
to show cause forthwith why they should not be bound 
overdo keep the peace in their own bond and one surety 
each of Rs. 1000. Whereas the holding of such a meet- 
ing by counter petitioners will be contrary to law and to 
the prohibitory order served on the counter-petitioners 
and will inevitably result ir. breach of peace and where- 
as such breach of the peac- cannot for the reasons given 
above be prevented except h no immediate arrest of the 



23 

counter-petitioners as provided by section 114 C. P. C, 
I do hereby order their arrest under the warrant issued 
by this Court." 

They were arrested and produced before the District 
Magistrate. Pour witnesses were examined for the pro- 
secution and haying declined to execute a bond or furnish 
sureties, the District Magistrate sentenced them to six 
months' imprisonment. They were then taken to Calicut 
Sub-Jail in jtwp motor cars, escorted by the District 
Superintendent and Deputy Superintendent of Police. 

With a view to prevent a breach of the peace, and to 
avert a contingency of any disturbance, soldiers in two 
motor lorries patrolled the town, while Reserve Police 
maintained peace and order. The town hall and the 
beach where meetings had been arranged to be held were 
also guarded by the Police. A large number of people 
had assembled in front of the Huzur when the four in- 
dividuals were under trial. Last night, processions of 
Mohammedans passed through the streets repeating cer- 
tain words from the Koran. On the whole, the crowd was 
orderly and well behaved. 

A DAY OP BARTAL. < 

To-day has been observed as a day of hartal. There 
were huge processions during the whole day. Almost all 
the shops remain closed. Butchers were away from their 
stalls and mutton and beef could not be obtained. A 
procession of students, Mohammedans in particular, 
passed through some of the streets. The Government 



29 

School of Commerce and the Native High School re- 
mained closed in the absence of students. The Zamorin's 
College was also practically closed although a few of the 
classes worked with a very limited number of students. 
Most of the lawyers have abstained from attending Court. 
Great sensation prevails. 

^ACTick isVstfekDED. 

It is understood that Messrs. A. Karunakara Menon 
K. V. Gopala Menon and P. Achutan of the Calicut Bar 
and P. Ramunni Menon of the Ottapalam bar have sus- 
pended practice. (West Coast Spectator dated 17th 
February 1921). 



APPENDIX V. 

COUNCIL DEBATE. 



18TH FEBRUARY 1921. 
Diwan Bahadur M. Krishnan Nair. 
" I submit, Sir, that I deem it extremely unfortunate 
and extremely deplorable that at this time when the Re- 
firms are coming into operation, when the Government of 
India are considering, the desirability of repealing all or 
some of the repressive laws, the District Magistrate of 
Malabar should have thought it fit to exercise these pro- 
visions of the Criminal Procedure Code and, as I shall be 
able to show presently, bring trouble not only to himself 
but to the others also inclusive of the Government. I 
can very well understand, Sir, the District Magistrate's 
anxieties for preserving peace ; I can also understand that 
with good reasons he might have prohibited the holding 
of any particular meeting in the Taluk which I mentioned, 
namely Ernad. But I cannot understand, Sir, why the 
District Magistrate should have issued such an order 
under section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code, pro* 
hibiting meetings and prohibiting these gentlemen, to 
address meetings in the town of Calicut. I have not 
heard of any disturbance in Calicut like those disturban- 
ces that sometimes occur in the Ernad Taluk and in 
some parts of Walluvanad Taluk. If instead of having 
issued these order he had allowed the meeting to proceed 



31 

as was done at the timq when Mr. Gandhi visited Calicut 
some months ago. I'myself was not present in Calicut 
then ; I was told that about thirty-thousand persons were 
present to hear him preaching non-co-operation, absolu- 
tely no harm would have taken place. As a matter of 
fact people listen to these speeches and go away and they 
forget them the next day. They look upon these things 
more or less as a fun. At any rate in this part of India, 
in the Southern Presidency, in Malabar particularly, of 
which I know more than other districts, no harm has 
taken place in consequence of the preaching of non-co- 
operation or the Khilafat. So that, the .effect of what 
the District Magistrate has done is this. In consequence 
of this order there has been a large crowd in Calicut. 
The vakils have struck work ; I do not know whether the 
strike still continues ; I have no, information. I fact, I 
may say at once, Sir, that I have not received any com- 
munication from the persons concerned. My information 
is from other sources. The vakils, have struck work, the 
jutkawallas have ceased plying their jutkas and there is 
very great sensation. It is reported that schools and col- 
leges have become empty and. the order has created a 
great sensation and, as I said, quite unnecessarily. It 
may be said — I can very well understand it- — how can the 
District Magistrate be blamed when these gentlemen on 
whom these orders were served by him, do not obey the 
order ? Is there any cause left to him but to imprison 
these persons ? Legally, I grant that that position under 
the Criminal Procedure Code is correct. But the District 



32 

Magistrate who is the representative of the Government 
in the district should take a more comprehensive and 
broader view than this, and, instead of creating, as 1 sub- 
mit, trouble for others and for himself he should prevent 
the occurrence of trouble ; and I sincerely and honestly 
believe that his action in having issued this order will 
bring plenty of trouble. It will excite the people and it 
will create the very trouble which it is intended to avoid. 
The trouble may even spread to the dangerous zone, 
the Ernad Taluk.' I do hot know Mr. Yakub Hasan 
personally. I am told* that he is held in high esteem in 
some quarters and in very great respect in others. This 
action of the District Magistrate is likely to excite and 

rouse the Mappillas." 

'■*'■■' ) ■•'■•• • • 

The Hon'ble Sir Lionel Davidson : — " The Govern- 
ment of Madras share the Hon'ble Member's regret that 
it should have been necessary at this time to take prohi- 
bitory action under the Criminal Proceedure Code, but 
they cannot agree with him that the action was unneces- 
sary. Perhaps the.best' method of illustrating the posi- 
tion will be for me to place before the house the sub- 
stance of the communications which we have received 
during the past few days from the District Magistrate of 
Malabar. These I now propose to read, if you will per- 
mit me, Sir, for the current' of the narrative will gain force 

if they are read out instead of being paraphrased. 

■ ■■■'■.,'. .i r • * 

" We had been aware for sometime past from the 

confidential reports of the District Magistrate of Malabar 



33 

that the position was getting more and more serious in 
respect of the Khilafat movement and the active mani- 
festations of it. There is at least one question on that topic 
before this Council, which will, i hope, Ire, answered to- 
morrow. Matters came definitely to a' head on or about 
the l2th February when the District Magistrate found it 
necessary to issue orders prohibiting, political meetings in 
Ernad and parts of Walluvanad, that is to say, the Map- 
pilla area. The District Magistrate's telegram informing 
us of this ran as follows : — 

" Intimidation prevails throughout the district. Fur- 
ther action imperative. Yakub Hasan and Rajagopala- 
chari expected today, to tour district. Consider essential 
(to) prohibit meetings throughout the district and stop 
Yakub Hassan forthwith." 

" Our reply to that telegram was: — 

" Regret general prohibition you propose is impos- 
sible, but Government have no desire to limit your dis- 
cretion under Section 144 in preventing specified meet- 
ings or restraining Yakub Hassan or others from speaking 
on particular occasions." 

The reason why that reply was sent to the District 
Magistrate was that we feel, as we feel now, that the 
Senior Magistrate must be trusted to exercise discretion- 
ary power in regard to matters of a changing nature of 
which, we, four hundred miles away, can have no precise 
idea. 



21 



APPENDIX VI. 

IN THE COURT OF THE DIVI- 
SIONAL MAGISTRATE, CALICUT. 

ORDER UNDER SECTION 144 C. P. C. 
8th May 1921. 
" Whereas It has been made to appear to me that 
Thayyil Assan Mulla and others of the Khilafat Com- 
mittee intend to hold a public meeting for the purpose of 
preaching Khilafat and Non-co-operation and whereas in 
my jurisdiction the dissemination of Khilafat and Non- 
co-operation propaganda has resulted in the past and is 
likely to result hereafter, in riots directed by Mussalmans 
against Hindus as is witnessed by the fact that a case 
arising out of this self-same agitation is now under trial 
before me in which certain Moplahs are charged with 
having formed with thousand other Moplahs an unlawful 
assembly and caused damage to the Matom (a place of 
worship) and Kolapura in Kizhakoth Amsom and polluted 
the tank attached and thereby offended the religious senti- 
ments of the Hindus of that locality and whereas there is 
reason to apprehend that if a meeting avowedly 'for the 
dissemination of Khilafat and non-co-operation doctrines 
is allowed to be held in Calicut, the fair trial of this case 
may be prejudiced owing to the religious feelings likely to 
be aroused, now, I considering that immediate action is 
necessary in order to prevent annoyance and injury to 



35 

pers< ns lawfully employed, danger to the public safety and 
disturbance to the public tranquility, do hereby direct 
that no meetings shall be held ostensibly for the purpose 
of preaching or publishing Khilafat and non-co-operation 
doctrines in the Municipality of Calicut and the area 
within 5 miles of the Municipality limits and strictly warn 
and enjoin you not to take part in any such meetings and 
I direct that this order shall remain in force for a period 
of one month from to-day." 

There was a crowd on the beach and as soon as they 
knew that orders have been served and that meetings 
could not be held as the result of the prohibiting order, 
they began to melt away with the result that by 6. p. M. 
there were only 400 Moplahs squatting oa the beach. 



APPENDIX VII. 

THE POOKOTUR INCIDENT. 



(1. West Coast Spectator dated August 9th, 1921). 

EXTRACT : — "Rumour has it also that the convul- 
sion was due to the universal feeling of indignation felt 
by tenants against oppressive and tyrannical jenmis." 

(2. Madras Matt, dated August 15th 1921.) 

Extract: — "Within the past few days stories have 
been in circulation, started, of course, by apologists of the 
N. C. O. and Khilafat movements, that the recent mani- 
festations of lawlessness were almost wholly the outcome 
of landlordial oppression and tyranny, and, as may be 
guessed, these stories are aimed chiefly against the Nilam- 
bur Tirumulpad's family. As a matter of fact, the ten- 
antry of the Nilambur Rajah's family have always been 
l treated with the greatest consideration and it is common 
knowledge that melcharths are unknown among the ten- 
ants of this landed house." 

(3. Madras Mail, dated September 7th 1921). 

Extract: — (From the Special Correspondent) . " I 
was accorded an interview this morning by Elaya Tiru- 
mulpad of Nilambur, senior member of the Nilambur 
Rajah's family. It needed a good deal of persuasion to 
induce the Elaya Tirumulpad to tell his story. 



37 

• 
Some 16 or 20 days before the rebellion the Tiru- 

mulpad stated that between 200 and 300 Moplahs assem- 
bled together at Pookotur Kovilagam, of which the sixth 
Tirumulpad.was the manager and demanded their icages 
at 9 o'clock at night. The 6th Tirumulpad appears by 
his unsympathetic management of Pookotur properties to 
have made himself exceedingly unpopular with the Mop- 
lahs, who are still on his track, determined to put an end 
to his life. The Moplahs became very turbulent. They 
threatened the manager and said that, even if he escaped 
to Nilambur they would follow on his track. The 6th 
Tirumulpad managed to escape to Nilambur via Manjeri 

at dead of night. 

• » * » 

The Pookotur Moplahs openly stated that they were 
after the blood of three persons, namely, the 3rd Tirumul- 
pad, who is the general manager of the palace properties, 
the 6th Tirumulpad, the Pookotur Manager, and the 
Kariyasthan of Nilambur Mr. C. S. Lakshminarayanaier, 
against the last named of whom there seems to hav< been 
generally hostile feeling throughout Nilambur. 



APPENDIX Villa. 

THE MALABAR POLICE. 



THE POLICE RAJ. 

West Coast Spectator dated the 16th May 1922. 
Letter by Mr. Manjeri Ramaier B. A., B. L., High Court 
Vakil Calicut, under the heading " Malabar Affairs* 
Our Gratitude." " During the days of the rebellion, the 
Khilafat Raj put the Police Raj ignominously to the 
flight. The proud Policeman was stripped of his weapons 
and of his prestige and forced to realise the hard and 
painful fact that mere adeptship in charge-sheeting was 
of no avail against the faith-frenzied charge of the mus- 
cular Moplah. Now that the Military have humbled him 
to the dust and the Moplah is too weak to rise, the 
Policeman again has scrambled back into his congenial 
task of indiscriminate charge-sheeting. Instead of the 
rattle of the artillery and Ordnance, we have the prattle 
of the courts of the Ordinance. Instead of shooting each 
other down they are now swearing against each other' 
The abnormal circumstances are such that perjury is at a 
premium. Some of them now try to make up for the 
fleetness of their calf muscles in running away from their 
posts of duty by the " Hextra " telescopic power of their 
million magnified vision, in claiming to have witnessed 
crimes committed while, if the truth must be told, they 
were running hours and miles ahead, with their backs to 



39 

the scene, at a speed which would put to shame champions 
of an Olympian race. -\ 

Police officials are, after all, men, and we have no 
right to expect the impossible of them. Thousands of 
crimes have been committed, many who have- witnessed 
the crimes have had their own sympathy with the rebels i 
and they will not give evidence for the prosecution, and 
many crimes have been committed in darkness and in 
daylight with none witnessing save the rebels themselves. 
Even in the special courts there must be eye-witnesses 
who saw and identified the accused. A fairly large per- 
centage of these are to be ' detected ', and conviction must 
follow or else why the Police Department at all, and why 
promotions and other etceteras? A little imagination 
will supply you with the rest of the process of detection 
and proof, and men are afraid, even in cases were a parti- 
cular accused is innocent, to gave evidence for defence 
for fear of the dock inviting him soon after. The whole 
situation is a complex muddle in which all the power of 
prosecution and of pardon is concentrated into hands 
which are not always clean. There is also one other 
element to be taken into consideration. There are thous- 
ands of men who have grown fat on unholy loot. These 
do not feel safe until they have succeeded by continous 
tempting in thrusting a good portion of the loot into the 
hands of some fallen angel who can stand between them 
and the courts, and, if necessary, provide innocent substi- 
tutes in their stead. The situation is fraught with the 
greatest anxiety. The evils of an unchecked Police 



40 

regime are too well known to need any description. In 
critical times like these, the evils develop a thousand fold 
until the whole machinery of Police administration be- 
comes a by-word in the mouths of the people unless per- 
chance a strong man, with a considerable touch of 
Haroun Al Raschid is at the helm, who knows the Police 
official inside and outside and all his arts." 



APPENDIX VIII b. 

Order in S. J. C. No. 129 of 1922 on the file of the 
Court of the Special Judge, Malabar Ordinance, 1922. 
Dated 21st August 1922. 

Prisoners: — Chakkingalthodi Moideenkutti and 11 
others. 

Offence: — Waging War against the King and 
murder. 

Finding :-^Not guilty. 

Order : — Discharged. 

Para 9. Before setting out the evidence on the 
third and most important count, viz., the murders of the 
four Hindus, I may state that after all the prosecution 
evidence was taken, it was discovered that in another 
case viz., against Kakkat Veeran of Mannarghat and 20 
others relating to the murder of four Hindus, two of 
whom are identical with two of the victims in this case, 
the Crown had put forward a different version of the mid- 
night orgy of slaughter in which the accused charged in 
this case are alleged to have taken part. I sent for and 



41 

exhibited the charge sheet No. 358 in S. J. C. 163/22 
which is on Mr. Jackson's file. Vide Ct. Exhibit I. It 
casts a lurid light on the character of the police investi- 
gation into this transaction. 

Para 12. It is difficult to imagine two stories which 
differ more widely. The only point on which there is 
any agreement is that Nechuli Krishnan Nair was mur- 
dered on the night of the 19th October. 

Para 14. I consider it not a little remarkable that 
the Crovvn : should have put forward two wholly different 
accounts of the murders of Nechuli Krishnan Nair and 
Neeringal Ravunni Nair such as that presented in this 
case and , the one proposed to be proved in S. J. C. 
No. 163/22 supported by the evidence of two different 
sets of witnesses with the exception of one witness who 
has deposed to one version and is supposed to prove the 
other version as well. 

Para 15. The existence of the charge sheet in 
S. J. C. 163/22 having been brought to the notice of the 
Public Prosecutor, he reports that he did not press this 
portion of the case. In view of the course adopted by 
the Crown, I consider that it will be a waste of judicial 
time for me to investigate how the charges came to be 
laid ir» these cases. I would however draw the attention 
of the District Ma ristrate to the haphazard way in which 
capital charges have been preferred and the very serious 
neglect in the supervision over investigations which this 
case discloses. 



22 



APPENDIX VIII 132 

IN THE COURT OF THE 
ADDITIONAL SESSIONS JUDGE, 

SOUTH MALABAR. 



SESSIONS- CASE 2 OF 1923. 
The 5 Accused. — Marat Kalathil Ayamed Kutti and 
four other Moplahs— were charged with the murder of 
one Govindan Nair on 30th October '21 near a channel 
known as Kakathodu in Pomr Amsom in Walluvanad 
Taluk. In opening the case for prosecution the Crown 
Prosecutor made the following remarks. 

" The history of the case is quite sad. It is a case, 
which, if you believe the Crown evidence, was strangled 
at its birth by the guardians of the peace. There is no 
calumny against the Police Force as a class. The Crown 
impugns the conduct of two of the members of the 
honourable Force. There is much to be said about their 
connection with this case which would be more intelligi- 
ble to you after I lead the evidence for the Crown." 

The trial ended in the acquittal of the five prisoners 
and in his judgement the Judge deals with the conduct of 
Police Sub- Inspector Govinda Menon (Def. Wit. 1) in 
the following terms. 

Para 26. " As 1 am dealing with the share of the 
Police in this case I may say at once that D. \V. 1 



43 



Sub Inspector Govinda Menon has betrayed in the box 
his interest in the accused and his animus against the 
complainant. There is a clear ..instance of each. Now 
though complainant repudiates Exhibit I as a forced 
statement, D. W. 1 says it was a voluntary one. Com- 
plainant adheres to the story that he gave a complaint 
before the Vandur Police and even gave details of the 
dress of the officer to whom he gave it. So anxious 
however is D. W. 1 in this court to make out the com- 
plaint to be false that he actually forgets what he recorded 
whether voluntarily or under force, from the complainant 
in Exhibit I. It is beyond doubt that he entirely failed 
to make any enquiiies into the case after getting the re- 
minder note from his Inspector. What is even more 
suspicious is that he apparently studiously avoided asking 
who deceased's relations were or examining them, thouglj 
they were clearly the people who having last seen the 
deceased alive could give him the best information. He 
coolly says that he did not think it an important point in 
this case as who last had seen the deceased alive. He 
also had to admit after first denying it that he wrote a 
letter to a certain Nambudiri after he had been examined 
by Mr, Thome and received a reply. His answers on 
this point will show his regard for truth. " I did not 
write to him. I don't remember to have written any 
letter to that Nambudiri in connection with this case. I 
may have written him a letter. I wrote to him as I 
wanted to see P. W. 4." In re-examination he professed 
to have sent this letter under the orders of his superiors. 



44 

If so, why all this denial and shuffling ? I have no doulit 
this letter was written with the object of getting the 
evidence of P. \V. 'I broken up. He gave his evidence in 
the most unsatisfactory and evasive manner and I had 
frequently to warn him." 



S 



APPENDIX VIII B3. 

IN THE COURT OF THE 
SPECIAL JUDGE, MALABAR. 



(RESTORATION OF ORDER) ORDINANCE, 1922 

May 24th 1922. Case 74 of 1922. 

The Accused. — Mohamed Haji was charged with 
having waged war against the King. He was found not 
guilty and acquitted. 

Para 16. The defence produced a circular (Exhibit 
I) which this witness (P. W. 2) did copy. This was a 
circular which was prepared at the warehouse and is in 
the hand-writing of Manjeri Ramaier. Accused therein 
exhorts the Khilafat Committees in the name of Congress 
and Khilafat to teach the people not to break the law. 
' Particularly if anybody does any harm to Government 
officials, the latter should be given all the possible help 
and protected. Especially Hindus should be carefully 
protected." The fact that this circular was prepared 
must have been in the knowledge of the Police, but this 
has been suppressed by the prosecution and a story 
substituted in its place which crumbled at the first touch 
of cross-examination. 

Para 18. The defence has examined D. W. 5 to 
prove that the accused told P. W. 3 that he was going to 
Ponnani to prevent the rebels who had gone to Ponnani 



46 

from doing mischief but P. VV. 3 denies this. It is clear 
however from the evidence of D. VV.'s 1 and 2 that as 
soon as he returned from Ponnani on Monday and when 
he was blamed for leaving them alone at the warehouse 
the previous night, the accused stated at once that he had 
been to Ponnani to prevent mischief. Mr. Coultas says 
that the Inspector himself interpreted this to him. The 
Inspector's denial of this circumstance and of other cir- 
cumstances tending to show the action of the accused in 
a favourable light, .the friendly relati ons that existed 
between the Police and the accused so long as they were 
in the warehouse, and the grateful feeling everybody had 
for him at the time is one of the unsatisfactory features 
of the prosecution in this case. However this be there is 
no doubt that a grossly perverted version of the Ponnani 
adventure has been presented by the prosecution 
witnesses. 



APPENDIX VIII c. 

DEBATE IN LEGISLATIVE 
COUNCIL. 

March 3. 1923 Madras Mail 6th March 1923). 
Mr. Ramalinga Reddy, wished to know whether it was nota 
fact that in several places the Police without apprehending 
the rebels ran away and in some cases they even sur- 
rendered their arms. 

MALABAR POLICE DEPENDED. 

Mr. E. F. Thomas (nominated) at this stage rose to 
a defence of the police force in Malabar. He understood 
Mr. Ramalinga Reddy to say that the police force under 
him in the action at Tirurangadi had behaved in a cowardly 
fashion. That statement was not true. The police force 
at Tirurangadi had behaved with great courage. 

Mr. Ramalinga Reddy offered a word of personal 
explanation. He was understood to have said that the 
police under Mr. Thomas behaved badly. This was 
not so. The police at Tirurangadi behaved well and he 
had nothing but praise for them, but his observations as 
to the police throwing down their arms was confined to 
the police in the other actions in Malabar. 

Mr. Thomas accepted the explanation with pleasure. 
At the same time he wished to express as strongly as 
he could his disagreement with Mr. Ramalinga Reddy's 



48 

condemnation of the police in other places than at Tirur- 
angadi. Until the speaker went on leave the police every- 
where in Malabar did not only what was expected of them 
but much more. Throughout the rebellion the police 
undertook the most dangerous of duties. This was evid- 
ent from the fact that 25 policemen were killed and a like 
number wounded during the rebellion. He should have 
preferred this defence of the police to have come from 
some non-official member from Malabar, but as one who 
served in Malabar for many years and had great affection 
for the district he felt it necessary to state that the police 
throughout the rebellion with a few solitary exceptions, 
did as much and more than was required of them. 



APPENDIX VIII. A 

TOWN HALL MEETING. 



Calicut, l0-3-'23. — Aa emergent public meeting of 
the citizens o{ Calicut was held yesterday evening in the 
local Victoria Town Hall to protest against the doubling 
of the salt-tax and to show their gratitude to Mr. C. R- 
Reddy, M. L. C. , for his budget speech on Malabar mat- 
ters in the Madras Legislative Council. There was a 
large attendance and the audience was comprised of all 
political parties. 

On the motion of Mr. A. K. Kelu seconded by Mr. 
Raru, Mr. K. P. Raman Menon, High Court Vakil was 
voted to the chair. 

• • • • 

The second resolution ran thus: — 

a. That this meeting of the citizens of Calicut do 
express their complete confidence in Mr. C. R. Reddy and 
dp thank him cordially for his recent outspoken speech 
on Malabar affairs during the preliminary discussion on 
the Budget. 

b. That this meeting do fully endorse his state- 
ments about the need for an enquiry into the conduct of 
the Police during the beginning of the rebellion in the 
interests of law and order in the District and absolutely 
dissociate from Hon'ble Mr. A. R. Knapp's remarks about 

23 



50 

the behaviour of the Police at the beginning of the rebel- 
lion even after making full allowance for the difficulties of 
their position. 

c. That this meeting do request and authorise Mr. 
Reddy to press for such a committee on behalf of Mala- 
bar during the budget discussion and after in the local 
Legislative Council in which case the public of Malabar 
are prepared to lead evidence. 

Mr. Manjeri Ramaier in seconding the resolution 
sail, : — 

" From his experience in Tirur he could not find any 
policeman, excepting one Inspector, one Sub-Inspector 
and three Europeans. The 39 police Constables of that 
station were not at all seen in the neighbourhood but were 
coming out of their hiding places as the military came. The 
Policeman who was shivering all the while eating canjee 
said when the trial came that he saved the life of the 
Europeans. Mr. Ramaier challenged any one to say that 
his statement and that of Mr. Coultas were false. 
He then gave instance where a man was charged by 
the Police for murder while the accused was actually 
in Kolar at the time of the alleged offence : He mention- 
ed about five cases in which the Police charged those with 
crimes who were in the Coimbatore Jail long before they 
were said to have committed the crimes. What Mr. 
Reddy stated could be clearly proved from extracts from 
judgements in the Martial Law Courts alone. From 21st 
August until the Military arrived on the scene it might be 
said the presence or absence of the Police did not make 



51 

any change in the situation. The Police protected them- 
selves. If running away from their posts was their duty, 
they did it well." 

When the resolution was put to vote it was adopted 
amidst loud acclamation. (West Coast Spectator, 
13-3-'23.) 



APPENDIX IX. 

ATROCITIES. 



These are classified below : — 
(a) Brutally dishonouring women, 
fb) Flaying people alive, 

(c) Wholt ale slaughter of men, women and children, 

(d) Forcil ,y converting people in thousands, and 
murdering those who refused to be convertec\ 

(e) Throwing half-dead people into wells, and leav- 
ing the victims for hours, to struggle till finally- 
released from their sufferings by death. 

(f) Burning a great many and looting practically all 
Hindu and Christian houses, in the disturbed 
area, in which even Mopla women and children 
took part, and robbing women, of even the gar- 
ments on their bodies, in short reducing the 
whole non-moslem population to abject desti- 
tution. 

(g) Cruelly insulting the religious sentiments of the 
Hindus, by desecrating and destroying numer- 
ous temples, in the disturbed area, killing cows 
within the temple precincts, putting their ent- 
rails on the holy images and hanging the skulls 
on the walls and roofs. 

1. The Nannambra Atrocities. On the night of 
14th November 1921, a large body of armed Moplah 



53 

entered the house of Puzhikal Narayanan Nair, a 
wealthy landlord of Nannambra Amsom. They looted 
the house, carried off one of the girls and a boy 
captive, seized nine of the occupants and brought 
them to a neighbouring rock where they murdered seven 
of them. Five died at once, and two lingered for a few 
hours. The other two grievously wounded were left lying 
on the spot. A boy in the house — Madhavan Nair — was 
killed and thrown into a well. Narayanan Nair made his 
escape. 

The Special Judge who tried the case against the 
Moplahs remarked, " to my mind this murderous attack 
indicate something more than mere fanaticism or lust for 
looting. There is no evidence that the murders were 
committed because the murdered persons refused to em- 
brace Islam, or resisted the rebels, or refused to show 
property. The rebels seem to have meant to kill every 
male in the place whom they could catch hold of, and" the 
only survivors were those who either got away or were 
left as dead. The abduction of a young girl and a boy 
shows the deliberate ferocity of the attack." (Judgement 
in cases Nos. 116 and -116 A of 1922.) 

Narayanan Nair trusted his Moplah watchmen, whom 
he engaged to watch his house and they turned traitors. 
The Moplahs wanted to exterminate the family and very 
nearly succeeded in doing so. The girl was rescued from 
the hands of the rebels after a detention of six weeks and 
after suffering indescribable indignities. Horror of hor- 



rors 



II ! 



54 

Five of the prisoners were sentenced to capital pun- 
ishment and five to transportation for life, and who 
knows how many remain free, who had joined the gang ? 

2. Murder of Retired Police Inspector Khan Baha- 
dur Chekkutti and of Head Constable Hydross on 30th 
August 1921. Remarks of the Special Judge, Malabar. 

Case No. 73/'22. 

" These were the two of the most brutal murders in 
the rebellion which cost the lives of two loyal Govern- 
ment officers who were killed for doing their duty and 
for their services to the Crown. It is difficult to say which 
of the two was the more dreadful and the callous crime. 
In Chekutti's case the murderers had the decency to send 
away the women-folk before they finished the deceased 
off, but they were guilty of appalling barbarity in subse- 
quently parading the head on a spear. In the case of 
Hydross the murder was carried out in the presence of 
his wife and children and in spite of the entreaties of the 
latter and the efforts of his wife to protect her husband." 

The evidence of the wife shows how a brave man 
met his end and the singularly brutal circumstances of 
the murder. f 

3. Murder of Mr. Readman, Inspector of Police 
On the night of 19th August, 1921, Mr. Lancaster, 
A. S. P. , with Inspector Readman and a force of Police 
left Malappuram for Tirurangadi, but after going some 
eight miles, Mr. Readman was taken ill and had to be 
sent back in a cart, his orderly accompanying him. The 



55 

Inspector reached Malappuram early on the morning of 
the 20th and feeling better after a little rest sought leave 
to rejoin his men at Tirurangadi, but the request was not 
granted at that time. In the afternoon, however, he was 
informed that he could go if he was of the same mind, 
and he got ready at once, and was put into the Col- 
lector's car, the chauffeur being the only other occupant. 
The car was followed by three empty lorries in the lead- 
ing one of which was orderly Kunhali. After it had tra- 
versed the first eight miles from Malappuram, this lorry- 
was held up by a rebel gang who attacked and killed the 
occupants. The car conveying Mr. Readman got as far 
as the ferry, 12 miles from Malappuram and within two 
miles of Tirurangadi, when it was attacked by rebels, and 
it was here that Mr. Readman was killed. (M. M. Oct- 
ober 3. 1921.) 

4. An Orgy of Murder. Avokker Musaliar,a rebel 
leader, established himself with a large following in 
Muthumana Illom, in Puthur Amsom, Calicut Taluk 
in October and November 1921. Scores of Hindus 
were brought in from the country-side, some with 
.their families. They were offered Islam. Such as 
accepted it were converted and detained or sent away 
at Musaliar's pleasure. Whoever refused Islam were in- 
continently and irrevocably ordered to be put to the 
sword. There is a sacred grove attached to the Illom 
and in it are a Serpent Shrine and a well. Condemned 
Hindus were marched to the shrine, beheaded and thrown 
into the well. Batches of victims were thus disposed of 



56 

in this way and about 50 or 60 dead bodies were found 
in it. One of the Hindus named Kelappan had a most 
miraculous escape and has lived to tell the story. He 
received two sword cuts on the back of the head and 
neck and fell down. Others have had their heads com- 
pletely severed but he escaped decapitation by sheer luck. 
The rebels did not suppose that any life was left in him 
and one of them dragged him by the legs and pitched 
him into the well. 

The well was almost full with dead bodies. Kelappan 
who was flung on the top of them managed after two 
hours to haul himself up with the aid of a creeper which 
was hung down into the well and hid himself in the 
clump of tree?. He was refreshed by a little rain and 
quitted the grove after night-fall and slowly and painfully 
dragged himsslf along for a distance of 8 or 9 miles 
supporting his head which was hanging in front. He was 
found next morning at 8 o'clock in an exhausted state 
and was sent to the hospital by the Sub Inspector. He 
was under treatment for a month. (Judgement in Case 
No. 32 A of '22 dated 29th July '22\ 
\-*s 5. Chembrasseri Tangal's Performances. There is 
a well situate! about midway between Tuvur and Karu- 
varakundu on the slope of a bare hillock. Here the 
Chembrasseri Tangal's followers about 4,000 in number 
from the neighbouring amsoms held a great meeting. The 
Tangal sat in the shadow of a small tree. More than 40 
Hindus were caught by the rebels and taken to the 
Tangal with their hands tied behind their back. They 




KE1.APPAN WITH WOl'NDSON BACK AND HEAD, pl^e 5(i 



57 

were charged with the crime of helping the military 
against the rebels. Thirty-eight were condemned to 
death. Three are said to have been shot and the rest 
taken one by one to the well. Just at the brink there is 
a small tree. The executioner stood here and after 
cutting the neck with his sword pushed the body into the 
well. Many of the people who were thus thrown in were 
not dead. But escape was impossible. The sides of the 
well are cut in hard laterite rock and there are no steps. 
It is said that some people were crying out from the well 
even on the third day of the massacre. They must have 
died a peculiarly horrible death. At the time when this 
massacre was perpetrated it was the rainy season and 
there was some water in the well, but now it is dry. And 
any visitor can have a look at the gruesome Sight. The 
bottom is entirely filled with human bones. Pundit Rishi 
Ham, the Arya Samaj Missionary, who was standing by 
, my side counted 30 skulls. One skull deserves particu- 
lar mention. It is still seen divided neatly into two 
halves. This is said to be the skull of an- old man named 
y Kumara Panikkar, whose head was slowly cut into two 
[by means of a saw.— E. RAMA MENON, B. A. 

6. The Manntir Holocast. Press Communique, 
Calia\t, Nth November 192h In the rebel raid at Mannur 
and Tenhipalam which took place on the morning of 
the 9th instant definite information has now been 
received that 44 Hindu men, women and children were 
slaughtered by the rebals. The raid was purposeless as 
far as can be ascertained ; the only possible object could 
have been loot. 

24 



58 

7. Rubber Estates. " The Moplah rebels looted the 
Police Station at Karuvarakundu and taking possession of 
arms and ammunitions, proceeded to Kerala and Pullen- 
gode. Messrs. Browne and Colbrooksgot away safely, 

^i ^ i but only just in time. As soon as Mr. Browne left, the 
' K erala cooli es looted all the bungalows and took away 
everythingof value. They then proceeded to burn all bunga- 
lows, factories and other buildings, pull up bridges, and 
break down culverts. The destruction has been most 
thorough. 

"The coolies then cleared out with the loot, and the 
mob finished the work of destruction and sent a strong 
party after Mr. Browne up the Silent Valley path. They 
traced them by orange peel and their heel marks. How- 
ever, they did not get him, and he arrived in Ootacamund 
safely. 

All the estates have suffered the same fate. {Madra* 
Mail.) 

8. Murder of Mr. Eaton: — Mr. Eaton took the 
most direct and usual route to Kerala to join Mr. Browne- 
He took his chokra and three dogs. All might have been 
well had it not been for the dogs barking at something. 
This betrayed them. The Chokra climbed a tree and 
saw Mr. Eaton done to death. He only had time to fire three 
shots from his revolver before being set on and kicked to 
death by his own coolies, being mocked and jeered at 
during the process with such remarks as : " Did you not 
beat so and so? Then take that ", and " Did you not do 
so and so ? Then take that and that." 



59 

" After he was dead they decapitated him and took 
his head to the public road and placed in the centre there- 
of amid much demonstration, his body being thrown into 
the river. The Chokra was found by the Military during 
their operations. (Madras Mail.) 

9. The Nambudiri Sufferings:— Over 700 Nambu- 
diris, men, women and children of all ages and stages have 
sought refuge from the taluks of Ernad and Calicut 
and are now under the shelter of the Zamorin Rajah of 
Calicut. Many of them are reported to be staying at 
Mankavu and Chalapuram palaces. The illofn of Cheru- 
klol Nambudiri and the Chelri Madhan of Trikallore 
Devastanam were looted. Many illoms in the adjoin- 
ing amsom of Karasseri" were also destroyed or looted as 
also of Kanniparamba and Koorhakol amsoms, where 
even the houses of Nairs have not been spared. In addi- 
tion to the above, Parapoor, Oograpur, Pulayakote, Sree" 
krishnapuram, Chathamangalam, Peruvembra, Koloti and 
Amritamangalam have suffered seriously. 

Of the above, the events connected with Porkot Illom 
in Parapoor (Ernad Taluk) deserve mention. About 8 P.M. 
on the 21st about 600 rebels broke open the Nambudiri's 
house and a couple of them sat on the breast of Vasude- 
van Nambudiri, the h^ir-apparent, and held a sword to his 
neck commanding him to disclose the place where he had 
secured his valuables. On his telling them some of the 
rioters went upstairs and took possession of the whole 
and reported the receipt of the same to their comrades 
downstairs. The terror-stricken Nambudiri escaped to 



60 

the adjoining forests. Report has it that his belongings 
were worth oveV Rs. 10,000/- 

The next morning at about 7 o'clock the rebels took 
possession of Madhathal Illom and looted it after sunset. 
The same night they looted the Moms of Vattapuzhii. 
Kulangara, Theyeri and the next morning the Moms of 
Palakkal, Kottakal and T halethodi also on the 24th when 
the refugees were cooking in Nermangat temple on their 
way to Calicut, the rebels, who were fully armed, sur- 
rounded the temple before entering it, rooted out the idol, 
broke k to pieces and attempted to convert several of the 
refugees to Islam. The refugees narrowly escaped to 
the Zamorin's Palace. The temple of Eswaramangalain 
and almost all the Hindu houses in the same desom wer.; 
looted. Several of the Nambudiri women who have 
arrived are without their inevitable upper cloth, cadjan 
umbrella or Thali (ornament). Vasudevan Nambudiri of 
Chuzhalipurath Mana in Pannikot amsom Calicut Taluk, 
whose illom was looted refused to change his faith and wa* 
murdered forthwith. 

About 300 Moplah rioters, who seated themselves on 
the railway line adjoining Trikazhikkot Swami's Mutt, 
sent abbot ten among them to the Swami and demanded 
of Rs. 300/-, but withdrew on payment of Rs. 100/- with 
the promise of taking the balance, aftef the arrival of His 
Holiness' Agent. At night they appeared, again looted 
the whole Madham and made good their escape with 
cash, jewels and other valuables. 



6l ; 

News of Nambudiris from Nilambur, Kottakal and 
Manakada is equally heart-rending, Some of the Nambu- 
diri wome.i and children who are supposed to have es- 
caped are missing. Over 600 Moplahs arrived at 4. p. m. 
one day at the house of Vettath Oriipulasseri Nambudiri- 
pad ordered him to open the safe, and carried away as 
much as they could. A'nother gang opened the granary 
and took paddy and vessels. 

The looting lasted for about six hours. 
At Parhingot Manakal, near Kalpakancheri a similar 
looting took place. 

The house of Tirunavai Vadhyans, the High Priest 
of the Nambudiris was also attacked. 

In Poomalli Man'a a sum of Rs. 4,000/- was paid. 
The rioters are also rep >rted to have looted a granary here 
and to have carried away 12,000 paras of paddy. 

In Chevoor NambudirPs Illom the rioters were seen 
for four days, from the 20th to the 24th, and were given 
all that they demanded. The adjoining Atupurath 
Bhattethiripad was forced also to give up his Illom to 
the rioters. 

In all the eight Illoms of Parappor Desom (Ernad 
Taluk) the rebels committed havoc, and the members of 
Pookotur Illom were the worst sufferers, having lost about 
Rs. 50,000/-. The rebels entered the temple belonging 
to these Nambudiris removed and broke the idol to pieces 
and killed a cow. 



62 

The N-imbudiris of Thakkapuram Djsom have taken 
shelter in the Mapkata Palace as their Illoms were loot- 
ed. The Nambud^ris of Narass Mana, Payapulli Mana 
have also suffered and Rao Bahadur M. C. Krishna Varma 
Raj ih of Mankata deserves a wo/d of praise, for giving 
shelter and hejp to the refugees who have arrived .there. 

In Valiya Ghemborni Mana (Ernad Taluk) about 25 
Moplahs appeared for the first time on the 22nd and 
wanted one para of paddy and Re. 1/-. Several such 
gangs followed at intervals of a few minutes. A very 
large gang that 'came finally told the owners not to bother 
themselves by repeated disbursements in small quantities 
and looted about) 15,000 paras of paddy from the granary. 
Most of the rebels are reported to be the Nambudiris 
'enants. (Madras Mail 5th September '21.) 

10. Flayed Alive. t Several recent reports show 
that between Variankunnath Kunhamad Haji and the 
Chembrasseri Tangal it has been decided that all Hindus 
residing in villages at the mercy of rebel bands, should be 
put to death unless they accept Islam. Instances are 
mentioned in which Hindus had actually been forced to 
dig their own graves before being butchered. It is also 
reported that diabolical reprisals are being perpetrated 
against all persons known or suspected of supplying pro- 
visions to the military and police, one report stating that 
the Chembrasseri Tangal had ordered a Hindu to be flayed 
alive for supplying troops with milk. In villages like 
Melattur, Melmuri, Karuvarakundu and Toovur, extermin- 
ation of the Hindu population is being systematically 



63 

carried on, but young women' and girls who find 
favour with rebels, are forcibly carried away. Hundreds 
of Hindus are daily pouring into MalappUram, Wandur, 
Manjeri, Angadipurafri! and other places where the pre- 
sence or the proximity of troops and police^iiffers security 
but as provisioning of even military is nd\ an easy pro- 
blem, as many as possible of the unhappy fugitives are 
being passed on to Calicut, Palghat ' and elsewhere. 
(Madras Mail 4th October '21). .' " 

\^ 11. Kerala Patrika, Wednesday, March /, 1922. 
The story of the death of Krishnan Nair will melt even 
the stoutest heart. He had rendered much help in arrest- 
ing the rebels. This rankled in the mind of the Mopla 
and he was killed. First the skin was peeled off from his 
body, below the waist. He had to suffer this pain for 
some time. Then his two legs were cut off from the 
body. He had to suffer pain from this for some time. 
Ultimately his neck also was cut off. Thus it was that 
he was done to death. The other two were soon hacked 
to pieces. The three brothers who remained, fled and 
saved themselves when these were nearing their end. 

[^^12. Report of a refugee: — "A pregnant woman carry- 
ing Tmonths was cut through the abdomen by a rebel and 
she was seen lying dead on the way with the dead child 
projecting out of the womb. Another, a baby of six 
months was snatched away from the breast of its own 
mother and cut into two pieces. (Extract from a report 
of Mr. Devadhar.) 



£4 

/'" A respectable Nayar lady at Metatur was stripped 
naked by the rebels in the presence pf her husband and 
brothers, who were made to stand close by with their hands 
tied behind. When they shut their eyes in abhorrence, 
they were compelled at the point of the sword to open their 
eyes and uitness the rape committed by these brutes in 
their presence. (Extract from a report of Mr. Devadhar.J 
13. The Sack of Nilambur:—W\amb\ir is the Head 
quarters of the wealthy and aristocratic family of Tha- 
charakavil Tirumulpad a ruling chief in the ancient days. 

At 8 A. M. on Sunday August '21, at which hour 
most of the Kovilagam guards were away, the Moplahs 
of Pookotur arrived in a very large body, armed with 
guns, swords and war-knives and rushed to the palace 
gate. The small palace guard offered but feeble resist- 
ance. One of the men a washerman by caste, fired on 
the Moplahs killing one man. He cut another Moplah 
down, but he was soon overpowered by the Moplahs who 
hacked bim to pieces. The rest of the guard escaped into 
an adjoining house but the Moplahs pursued and butcher- 
ed all the inmates including two women and a child. 
Seventeen persons were killed and two dangerously 
wounded in this house. In the meanwhile, members of 
the Nilambur family took shelter and shut themselves in- 
side the ladies, palace, with the exception of the Elaya 
Tirumulpad who stayed in bis own bungalow with his 
family. The majority of the rebels went into the Senior 
Tirumulpad's palace, and destroyed everything they found 
there. Property worth Rs. 35,000 was destroyed besides 



65 

the records for 8 years which were burnt. While the 
bulk of the rebel:; were engaged in this direction, a large 
mob rushed towards the ladies' palace, where men, wo- 
men, and children, and servants and attendants number- 
ing about 150 souls, had locked themselves in. Half a 
dozen doors were broken open by the rebels, and at last 
they reached the door of the building in which women 
and children had taken shelter. Meanwhile a rebel mes- 
senger came with some message which caused the gang 
to leave the ladies' palace and rush off to that portion of 
that palace which was being destroyed. After completing 
the work of destruction they went off in the direction of 
Pookotur, shouting and telling Nilambur people that they 
would return to the Kovilagam after looting the Manjeri 
treasury. 

The whole of the family and servants were sent to 
the other side of the river into the forest. On the follow- 
ing day there was general looting and plunder all over 
the place and with the exception of the Kovilagam and 
about hundred houses which were guarded, all the neigh- 
bourhood was looted. (Madras Mail 17th September 21.) 
STATEMENTS OF REFUGEES. 
H4. Padmanabhan, Adhikari, Puthur, Calicut:— 
" The Moplahs systematically looted all the houses, some 
houses being also burnt and destroyed. All the temples 
in the neighbourhood, about a dozen in number, have been 
destroyed and the idols completely broken." 

" Two of my uncle's sons and another relative and 
also 3 Cheruma servants were however caught by the 

25 



66 

Mbplahs and killed. It is difficult to estimate the num- 
ber of people killed. It cannot be less than 300. Two 
wells have been filled completely and a third, partly filled 
up with dead bodies." 

Numerous women, chiefly Thiyyas.have been violated 
but it is impossible to give details. One women was 
captured along with her husband. The husband was be- 
headed and the women was raped. 

15. Vellakiri Kuttipurath Gopalan Nair, Puthur, 
Ernad.—At about 8 P. M. on the 14th Kanni (24th Sept. 
21) Moplahs about 300 in number forcibly entered the 
house. In the meanwhile Karunakaran Nair managed to 
come out with one chopper and a stick with a sword in- 
side. He fought with the Moplahs and killed 4 of them 
and wounded some. Soon after he ran to the gate. At 
that time a Moplah threw a spear on his head which 
pierced through his neck and he fell down and died < 
Moplahs looted all the property. My three houses were 
looted and one house burnt to ashes. There is a temple 
also that belongs to us. This temple was destroyed. 
From Vengara Amsom about 20 men have been killed. 
About 60 Hindus have been converted. Besides mine 
there are two other temples also in Vengara. All of them 
have been destroyed and idol9 broken and cows slaught- 
ered. 

16. Kaipadhthu Kunjunni Nair, Koduvayoor, Er- 
nad: — There are about 50 Hindu houses there. Out of 
these, three houses have been set fire to and the rest have 
been more or less destroyed. Seven persons have been 



67 

killed and not less than fifty have been converted to Is- 
lam. Including small ones there are five temples in that 
Amsom and all of them have been destroyed and dese- 
crated. Five young women to my knowledge have been 
ravished. 

17. Maniyil Paloli Krishnan Nair, Trippanissi, 
Ernad : — I am 76 years old. The Moplahs compelled me 
to marry the poor woman who was staying with me and 
who is 56 years old. The marriage was performed ac- 
cording to Muhammadan rites. The Moplahs told us if 
any of us reverted to Hinduism, so long as even a male 
or female babe was left alive, our lives would not be safe. 

18. Clutnbazi Kutty Krishnan Nair, Adhigari, 
Ptruvallur, Ernad : — There are altogether about 200 (two 
hundred) Hindu houses in my Amsom. All the houses 
have been looted. More than 50 Hindus including 
women and Children have been converted to Islam. 
About 8 Hindus have been killed. There are four temples 
in that Amsom. All of them have been destroyed and 
desecrated. 

V^l9. Thiruthiyil Natuvancheri Narayanan Mussed, 
Adhigari, Valikunna, Ernad: — In my Amsom not less 
than one hundred houses have been looted and not less 
than 60 houses have been set fire to. I have got two 
temples in that Amsom. Both of them have been dest- 
royed. In my Amsom several men and women and 
children have been murdered by Moplahs. Dead 'bodies 
of children and grown up men and women were floating 
in the river. A Hindu woman about 70 years old waa 



6S 

burned to death, by setting fire to her thatched house. 
In that house there were 20,000 cocoanuts. The whole 
of them was burnt. All except the old women managed 
to run away. She could not run, and so she was burned 
to death. 

20. Puthukote Chathunni Nair, Puthur, Calicut. 
On the 28th September the rebels came to my house. 
All my family people, except myself, fled in panic. As 
soon as they came, they tied my hands. My neighbour 
Thiyyerthotiyil Gopalan was also dealt with in the same 
way. The next day, Gopalan piteously cried to be allow- 
ed to see his mother. Then he was taken to the brink 
of a well in Nagalikavpurambu, on the western side of 
Muthumana I Horn, and Gopalan was cut down, with a 
sword, by one of the rebels. The body was thrown 
into the well. I saw this with my own eyes. I con- 
sented to be converted to Islam. Then they made me 
recite some verses, in the Koran, and gave me some 
meals. 

On the day I was converted, 6 men, belonging to 
the Pervayil and ChathamangalAn amsoms were also 
converted. I saw two Nairs caught from Neeleswaram, 
and four Thiyyas caught from Kotuvalli being cut with 
the sword, on the brink of the before mentioned well 
belonging to the Kavu. 

21. Thelappurath Rama Kurup. On the 8th Chin- 
gam (24th September) the Moplahs entered my house: 
They were about 60 or 70 Moplahs on the whole. Most 
of thara were native! of that place and tenants, tt wad 



Heaps of Kuduma (hair tuft) removed during forcible conversion. 
Found at Nirilamukh, Calicut taluk, placed against a wall and photographed. 



6* 

about 12 noon. They caught hold of me and stretched 
me on my back and placed the sword on several parts of 
my body and threatened to kill me. I cried out and 
called the name of Manpurath Thangal several times. 
Then one old Moplah asked them to leave me alone. All 
my moveables were removed and looted. I have sustained 
a loss of nearly Rs. 11,000. One of my temples also was 
destroyed. The idols were taken away and destroyed. 
In my Amsom 5 temples were destroyed. No less than 
40 Hindus were converted to Islam. One of the nieces 
of mine was converted. 15 persons were killed in my 
Amsom by Moplahs. Out of these 3 are women. 

Since giving this statement, this Gentleman has 
committed suicide. 

22. K. Govindan Nair, Adhikari, Thazhkode, Man- 
assert, Calicut. In both these Amsoms together there 
are above 300 Hindu houses besides the huts of Cheru- 
mas. Without exception all the houses have been looted 
and all the moveables taken away by rebels. About 40 
houses have been set on fire and burnt to ashes. In both 
the Amsoms together there are about 25 temples. Some 
of them have been burnt to ashes, others destroyed and 
idols broken and cows butchered in them. About the 
end of November on a single day 22 persons, all Hindus, 
were killed by Moplahs. 

23. Sankunni Unni Nair, Kannatnatigalam, Ernad. 
All the Hindu houses in the Amsom were completely 
looted. As my people were the most important family in 
the neighbourhood the rtbela Wanted to convert thetWi 



They came provided with barbers and jackets etc., to 
convert them. But my family received timely warning 
from a Nair servant. The Moplahs being enraged at tbe 
disappointment pulled down part of my house and set 
fire to the house of the servant who gave us warning. 
My Tarwad has altogether suffered a loss of about 
Rs. 30,000, The Iringalath Vishnu Temple which be- 
longs to me was destroyed and partly burnt. The idol 
was smashed to small bits. 

24. Mad hat hit Vishnu Nambudri, Vilayil, Ernad. 
On the 22nd August, about 9 A. M., about 10 Moplahs 
came to my house ; most of them are my neighbours and 
tenants. Gradually the rebels began to increase in num- 
ber and by noon there were not less than 500 Moplahs. 
I sent away the women and children through the back 
door and when the Moplahs began to enter the house, I 
myself ran away. I lost about Rs. 15,000 worth of pro- 
perty in the beginning and subsequently my house worth 
about Rs. 20,000 was set fire to and destroyed ; most of my 
records have been destroyed.I was in Vaikom till now and 
came to Calicut 4 days back. I have to get rice from 
this camp. I am now staying in Vattur Illom at Chala- 
puram. 

25. Ramunni Nair, Adhigari, Olakara, Ernad! On 
October 12th the rebellion spread to my Amsom in a 
serious form. Every Hindu house was looted of every- 
thing valuable. My amsom Kolkaran (peon), Chathu 
Nair, who did not flee, was beheaded. About half a 
dozen people have been killed and above 30 converted' 



All the cattle have been killed and slaughtered in the 
amsom. I have myself lost about 30 cows besides 
bullocks and buffalows. 

26. Mangalasseri Vishnu Nambudri, Peruvallur, 
Ernad. I have four temples : — The Keravallur Bhaga- 
vathi temple — Karimkali Kavu, Ettaparambil Vishnu 
Kshetram, Aiyappan Kavu, and these temples have been 
partly destroyed and the idols have been dug up and re- 
moved. Among my dependants, five women and two 
men have been slain, S persons, two Nairs and three 
Thiyyas have been forcibly converted into Islam. 

27. Vilayil Chantamara Pishrodi, Adhikari Vilayil, 
Ernad. There are nine Nambudri Illoms in that Amsom. 
Moplahs entered all the houses and forcibly removed 
jewels of Nambudiri women ; in the case of Nayar women 
also Moplahs did the same thing. All the women had to 
take shelter in the jungles and the Moplahs tried to hunt 
them out from the forests, but they did not succeed in 
finding them out. On the third day, Cheruvayur Amsom 
Adhikari's men came and rescued these women. There 
are six temples in the Amsom, all of them have been des- 
troyed and desecrated and cows slaughtered in the pre- 
mises and the idols were garlanded with the entrails and 
the skulls hung in various places in the temples. Six 
Hindus have been murdered and about 15 houses burnt by 
the rebels. About sixty persons were forcibly converted. 

28. Gopalan Alias Parakat Mupil Nair, Chtrur* 
Ernad. The Moplahs entered my house, removed all the 

Note.— Cbantamara Pisharodi has since been murdered. 



11 

moveables entered the temple close by, which also be- 
longs to me, converted the Embrandri there to Islam 
killed eight persons from the temple premises, three 
women and five men. All the idols were destroyed and 
cows killed in the temple. I had about 40 heads of 
cattle including cows and calves. Some were killed and 
others taken away. I have, on the whole, lost Rs. 12,000 
worth of property by the Mopla rebellion. Not less than 
40 Hindus were converted to Islam from that Amsom. 
There are five temples in my Amsom. All of them have 
been destroyed and desecrated. 



APPENDIX Xa. 

H. E. THE VICEROY'S SPEECH. 

Simla Sept. 3, 1921. 



THE MOPLAH REBELLION. 

" I shall not enter into a" lengthy discussion of the 
events and conditions that led to this serious outbreak, 
which may be said without exaggeration of language, to 
have assumed the character of a rebellion, because I am 
well aware that you will have opportunities of discussing 
these matters in the course of your debates. I shall only 
make some general observations for your consideration 
It is obvious from the reports received that the ground 
had been carefully prepared for the purpose of creating an 
atmosphere favourable to violence, and no effort had been 
spared to rouse the passions and fury of the Moplahs. 
The spark which kindled the flame was the resistance, by 
a large and hostile crowd of Moplahs, armed with swords 
and knives, to a lawful attempt by the Police to effect 
certain arrests in connection with a case of house-break- 
ing. The Police were powerless to effect the capture of 
the criminals and the significance of the incident is that 
it was regarded as a defeat of the Police and therefore, of 
the Government. Additional troops and Special Police 
had to be drafted to Malabar in order to effect the arrests. 
The subsequent events are now fairly well known although 
it is impossible at present to state the number of the 

36 



74 

fnrioce'nt victims of the Moplahs. These events have 
been "chronicled in the Press, and I shall not recapitulate 
theVi!. " The situation is to all intents and purposes, in 
hand. It has been saved by the prompt and effective 
action of the Military and Naval assistance for which we 
are duly grateful, although, some time must necessarily 
elapse before order can be completely restored and normal 
life under the Civil Government resumed. 

But consider the sacrifice of life and property. A 
few Europeans and many Hindus have been murdered, 
communications have been obstructed. Government offices 
burnt and looted and records have been destroyed. Hindu 
temples have been sacked, the houses of Europeans and 
Hindus burnt. According to reports, the Hindus were 
forcibly converted to Islam, and one of the most fertile 
tracts of South India is threatened with famine. The 
result has been the temporary collapse of the Civil Gov- 
ernment. Offices and Courts have ceased to function,— 
and ordinary business has been brought to a standstill. 
European and Hindu refugees of all classes are concent- 
rated at Calicut and it is satisfactory to note that they 
are safe there. One trembles to think of the consequen- 
ces if the forces of order had not prevailed for the pro- 
tection of Calicut. The Non-Muslim in these pahs was 
fortunate indeed that either he or his family or his house 
or property came near the protection of the soldiers and 
the Police. 

The Extremists condemned : — Those who are respon- 
sible for causing this grave outbreak of violence and 



n 

crime must be brought to justice and made to suffer the 
punishment of the guilty. But apart from direct respon- 
sibility, can it be doubted that when poor, unfortunate and 
deluded people are led to believe that they should dis- 
regard the law and defy authority, violence and crime 
must follow. This outbreak is but another instance on a 
much more serious scale and among a more turbulent and 
fanatical people, of the conditions that have manifested 
themselves at times in various parts of the country, and 
gentlemen, I ask myself and you and the country general- 
ly, what else can result from instilling such doctrines into 
the minds of the masses of the people ? How can there 
be peace and tranquillity when ignorant people who have 
no means of testing the truth of the inflammatory and 
too often deliberately false statements made to them are 
thus misled by those whose design is to provoke violence 
and disorder ? Passions are thus easily excited to un- 
reasoning fury. Although I freely acknowledge that the 
leader of the movement paralysed authority persistently 
and as I believe, in all earnestness and sincerity preaches 
the doctrine of non-violence and has even reproved his 
followers for resorting to it, yet, again and again, it has 
been shown that his doctrine is completely forgotten and 
his exhortations absolutely disregarded when passions are 
excited as must inevitably be the consequence among 
emotional people. To those who are responsible^ for the 
peace and good Government of this great Empire, and I 
trust, to men of sanity and common sense in all classes 
of society, it must be clear that defiance of Government 



76 

and constituted authority can only result in widespread 
.4jSQr.d er jj 1 p. political, chaos and itv auajreby, and in ruin, 
There r are ; signs that the activity of the leaders oi the 
movement, or at least of one section of it, may take the 
form of even a more direct challenge to law and order. 

A clear warning : — There has been wild talk of a 
general policy of disobedience to law and in some cases, 
I regret to say, accompanied by an open recognition that 
such course must lead to disorder and bloodshed. At- 
tempts have been made by some fanatic followers of Is- 
lam to seduce His Majesty's soldiers and the police from 
their allegiance and attempts that have, I am glad to 
say, met with no success. As head of the Government, 
however, I need not assure you that we shall not be de- 
terred one hair's breadth from doing oar duty. We shall 
continue to do all in our power to protect (peaceful and law" 
abiding) citizens and to secure to them their right to pur- 
sue their lawful avocations. And above all we shall con- 
tinue to enforce the ordinary law and to take care that it 
is respected. It is the manifest duty of every loyal sub- 
ject of the King-Emperor, as it is the interest of all who 
wish to live peaceful lives, with a security of protection 
against violence and crime, to oppose, publicly a move- 
ment fraught with such dangerous possibilities, aVid to 
help the officers of the Government in their task of pre* 
venting and suppressing disorder, and I and my collea- 
gues are ready and anxious to do all that is possible to 
allay legitimate discontent and remedy the grievances of 
the paoplg of India. (Madrai Matl, Jth Sspumbcf 21)i 



APPENDIX Xrb. 

Statement by Sir W. Vincent 



(Council, of State Debate.) 

Simla, September 5 f ' _ 

MOPL&H FANATICISM. 

Sir William Vincent, on behalf of the Government 
said, that the real truth of the origin of the outbreak was 
that the Moplahs were ignorant, many of them poor and 
nearly all of them fanatical and entirely under the in- 
fluence of a bigoted priesthood. As he understood them, 
many of them were descendants of Arab traders and 
soldiers, and after their entry in Malabar they began the 
conversion of students there to Muhamadanism. At the 
end of the rising in 1885, 20,000 arms, including 9,000 
guns were recovered. The present rising appears to have 
been purely fanatical, though he had no doubt it had been 
accentuated by economic distress, ordinarily resulting in 
keen agrarian troubles but he had no information to lead 
him to believe that the Hindu landlords were respon- 
sible "for this rising. There was no sympathy for the 
non-co-operation movement as such, because the Moplahs 
had little feeling for Mr. Gandhi's personality. Judging 
from the recent events there was certainly ho sympathy 
for the movement of non*violent non-co-operation be- 
cause the greatest Violence had beeti Committed! 



78 

Volunteer Organisation* :— At the beginning of this 
year, there were certain speeches delivered and these had 
a considerable effect qn the fanatical population of Mala- 
bar, which -was singularly prone td out-breaks. In June 
there were reports of Volunteer organisations, and these 
organisations were going on secretly. In July there were 
provoking speeches on the Khilafat question which com- 
bined with the resolution of the All-India Khilafat Con- 

. ference held in Karachi produced an impression among 
the Moplahs that the end of the British rule was at hand. 
The 'first instance of lawlessness was in that month. 
When the Police Officers went to arrest a man who was 
concerned in the breaking into the house of a Nambudiri, 
a large number of Moplahs arrived, and there was serious 
danger of a riot which was however averted. The Police 
at that time were powerless, and the Moplahs considered 
themselves victorious. Under the Moplah Outrages Act, 
the Government arrested three men and there was no 
trouble, but a party of police was left to search others. 
In the course of this search, certain Moplah Policemen 
after taking off their shoes, entered a Mosque. This in- 
formation spread around, and a large force of Moplahs 
collected apparently to attack the police, but the attack 
was beaten off, he regretted to say, with loss of two 
officers. By this time, railway and telegraph communi- 
cations had been cut off, and the outbursts of fanaticism 
in Tirurangadi that developed into a general rising work- 
ed up in Malabar, where Swaraj was declared and green 

flags hoisted 9" the offices. Mobs of five to ten thousand 



'79 

were going about in small gangs, destroying rail-roads, 
harassing Hindus, especially high class Hindus and N airs, 
whose houses they looted and whom they occasionally 
murdered. The total casualties were one British Officer 
and three British other ranks killed, one British Officer 
and three British other ranks wounded, two Assistant 
Superintendents of Police, one Inspector, and two Head 
Constables killed and one Constable murdered. Others 
narrowly escaped. Government could not be sure as to 
the actual death-roll among the people, but numerous 
Hindus had been murdered and some had been forcibly 
converted, under threat of death, to Muhammadanism. He 
understood that a Retired Inspector of Police was murd. 
ered, his head was cut off from the trunk, a spear was 
thrust into it, and it was taken through the streets. Tem- 
ples had been desecrated and defiled. 

Moplah Casualties: — Regarding the Moplah casua- 
lties, Sir William Vincent could give no figures, except 
that at Pookotur 400 had been killed, press reports indi- 
cated approximately 1,000 deaths. The figures he had 
quoted about Pookotur were by no means over-estimated, 
because the fight there lasted five hours. 

The whole Moplah rising seems to be due to the 
preachings of extremist Khilafat agitators. But the 
Government had no reason to believe that things would 
develop seriously. If the Government had previously 
resorted to any measures, it would have been considered 
a campaign of repression. Now Sir Manackjee asked the 
Government why they- did not take stringent measures 



so 

• 

before. Surely the Council could not have it both ways. 
Last autumn when he stood up in the house, there was 
not a single man except perhaps one or two who asked 
the Gpvernment to take stringent measures. The Govern- 
ment of Madras were about to prosecute a certain indi- 
vidual in May for a speech delivered at Erode, but 
just then there was a meeting between Mr. Gandhi and 
the Viceroy, and rightly or wrongly the Government 
of India thought that it was only fair to give that gentle- 
man Locus Penitentiae in the hope that he would abstain 
from preaching violence. Unless the Council and Legis- 
lative assembly were prepared to vote considerably larger 
sums of money than they had done at present for the in- 
ternal defence of the country it was difficult to deal with 
risings of this character. As to the present position, he 
could say that all possible measures had been taken, and 
the situation was now well in hand. All possible measur- 
es had been taken not to prevent any .unnecessary force, 
or anything which could be considered as severe, and in- 
struction had been given to Military Officers not to cause 
any bitterness or humiliation, even though there might 
be rebellion. In conclusion, the Home member said, he 
wished to convey to the people, in Malabar, the sympathy 
and the regret of the Council and the Government for the 
lives lost, temples desecrated, and for insult and injuries 
to persons and property, appreciation of the services to 
the Naval and Military and all officers of the Crown and 
sympathy to the Madras Government. 

) ~ 



APPENDIX Xc. 

The Governor's Speech. 

The Madras Legislative-Council met at 11a. M. 1st 
Sept. 1921 in the Council chamber and there was a fairly 
large attendance. Sir P. Rajagopala Chariyar presided. 
H. E. THE GOVERNOR. 
H. E. the Governor adressed the Council as follows: — 
Mr. President and honourable members, — Before the 
commencement of the ordinary business of the day, I 
think that honourable members may expect me to make 
some statement to them concerning the present situation 
in Malabar and in other parts of this Presidency, includ- 
ing our own city of Madras. 

As regards Malabar, since martial law has been 
declared and the military are engaged in the task of 
restoring law and order, it is not proper for me t6 go into 
details. But I wish to emphasise the fact that it was the 
mere attempt on the part of the district authorities to en- 
force ordinary process of law that was signal for a sudden 
and wide spread outbreak of violence directed in the first 
place against Government, their officers and the whole 
apparatus of civil administration. Over a wide tract of 
courtfry, in an incredibly short space of time, communic- 
ations of all kinds were wrecked or obstructed, public 
offices and courts were attacked, and their records dest- 
royed. Police stations were plundered of their arms and 
ammunition, and civil government was brought to a com- 
plete stand still. As a natural consequence, excesses 

'37 



82 

followed of which private persons were the victims. 
Though accurate and complete particulars are in the 
nature of the case impossible to ascertain at present, there 
can, I fear, be little doubt that the numerous reports of 
arson, extortion, robbery and even murder are only too 
true. 

The suddenness and the extent of the conflagration 
point irresistibly to the existence of a wide spread and 
dangerous organisation whose leaders were only watching 
for an opportunity to attempt by violence to overthrow 
the existing government and to exploit for that purpose 
the religious fanaticism of the Moplah. It may be said 
that government have been remiss in not taki.ig precau- 
tionary measures in advance. To that I would reply that 
the settled policy has been as far as possible to avoid ex- 
citing public opinion, in the hope that the effect of the 
reforms would be gradually to defeat revolutionary agita- 
tions. While we admit that at first, our forces were in- 
adequate, I should like to express the grateful thanks of 
Government to the naval and military authorities for the 
promptitude and rapidity with which they responded to 
our appeals for assistance. It is unnecessary for me to 
say, as head of the Government, how deeply we deplor c 
the terrible loss of life which has already occurred, not 
only among military and police officers and men but also 
among peaceful and law-abiding citizens. We deplore, 
too, the loss of life among the Moplahs, ignorant and mis t 
guided dupes of unscrupulous agitators. Our deepest 
sympathy must also go out in full measure to all those 



83- 

who have been bereaved or left homeless through this 
outbreak, and the honourable members may rest assured 
that the Government are resolved to make the fullest use 
of all the resources at their disposal to restore law and 
order and to punish the guilty. 

Serious as the position is in Malabar, I feel it my 
duty to warn honourable members that it is not Malabar 
alone that gives Government grave cause for anxiety. 
Throughout the Circars and more particularly in the del- 
taic district the same insidious propaganda has been at 
work, undermining constituted authority, preaching race 
hatred and seeking to instil into the masses, impatience 
of and contempt for constitutional authority. 

In the Presidency town itself labour disputes, the 
merits of which we need not consider to-day have deve- 
loped under the same malignant influences a chronic state 
of hostility between Muhammadans and Hindus on the 
one hand and the Adi-Dravidas on the other, which has 
led to a series of deplorable conflicts, accompanied by loss 
of life and the destruction of property and necessitating 
the repeated intervention of the forces of the Crown. 

The duty of the Government is clear. We are re- 
solved toenforce the observance of law and order in all 
parts of the Presidency, and shall support our district 
officers, if necessary with military assistance, in all legal 
measures they may have to take to ensure to our peaceful, 
loyal and law-abiding citizens, safety for their lives and 
property and security irt the pursuit of their ordinary 
-t vocations. 



84 ; 

Respotisibility of Non-ojficiah: — J have spoken of 
the duty of Government, hut on honourable members, too, 
rests a responsibility, tn my speech at the last meeting 
of the old council I pointed out how the propaganda which 
is associated with the name of Mr. Ghandhi must inevit- 
ably culminate in chaos and disorder. I myself did no* 
then foresee how soon my forebodings would be justified- 

I then spoke of the great experiment on which we 
were embarking. Not the least important object of the 
recent constitutional reforms was to lead the people of 
this country to identify themselves more closely with the 
government. A crisis like the present affords an acid 
test of the extent to which this object has been attained. 
It largely depends on every honourable member, and on 
his attitude at the present moment whether that experi- 
ment should be hailed as a success or condemned as a 
failure. But it is not enough that we should feel assured 
of their benevolent intentions. Your intentions must be 
translated intq action. To you, as men of light and 
leading in your respective communities, I appeal, with 
all the earnestness at my command to rally to the Govern* 
ment, to organise an effective counter propaganda and to 
do all that in you lies to refute misinterpretation/) of the 
actions and motives of Government, and to encourage the 
people in resisting this intolerable terrorism which is the 
very antithesis of true liberty- 

I have expressed to Hon'ble Members very clearly 
and very frankly my view on the serious state of thing 5 
that exists in our midst at the present time. For the 



85 

credit of our Presidency, and for its progress and prospe- 
rity in the future I confidently rely on all loyal and right 
thinkings citizens, whatever their race or community, to 
assist the Government in defeating the forces of disorder 
amongst us, and in securing that our Province goes for- 
ward by sure and constitutional steps till she gains the 
goal of responsible Government and assist the country to 
become in every sense an equal partner in the great 
Commonwealth of .Nations which calls itself the British 
Empire. (Madras Mail, dated 1st Sept. '21). 



APPENDIX X d. 

Mr. Gandhi's Speech. 



Mr. Gandhi addressed a public meeting on 15th 
September 1921 evening on the Triplicane Beach, Madras. 
THE MOPLAH REBELLION. 

It was open to the Government, as powerful as they 
were, to invite the AH Brothers and the speaker to enter 
the disturbed area in Malabar and to bring about calm and 
peace there. Mr. Gandhi was sure that if this had been 
done much of the innocent blood would have been spared 
and also the desolation of many a Hindu household. But 
he must be forgiven if he again charged the Government 
with a desire to incite the population to violence. - There 
was no room in this system of Government for brave and 
strong men, and the only place the Government had for 
them was the prisons, He regretted the happenings in 
Malabar. The Moplas who were undisciplined had gone 
mad. They had thus committed a sin against the Khil- 
afat and their own country. The whole of India to- 
day was under an obligation to remain non-violent even 
under the gravest provocation. There was no reason to 
doubt that these Moplahs were not touched by the spirit 
of Non-co-operation. Non-co-operators were deliberately 
prevented from going to the affected parts. Assuming 
that all the strain came through Government Circles and 
that Ut**& conversions w«r« tru«, th* Hindus should not 



87 

put a strain on the Hindu-Moslem Unity and break h. 
The speaker was however not prepared to make such an 
a ssumption. He was convinced that a man- who was 
forcibly converted needed no "Prayaschitham." Mr. 
Yakub Hassan had already told them that those who were 
converted were inadmissible into the fold of Islam and 
had not forfeited their rights to remain in the Hindu fold. 
The Government were placing every obstacle in the way 
of the Congress and Khilafat workers to bring relief to de- 
solate homes and were taking no pains to carry relief them- 
selves. Whether the Government gave them permission 
or not it was their clear duty to collect funds for the relief 
of sufferers and see that these got what they required, 

They did not yet know fully what measures the 
Government were going to take to repress the strength 
and rising of the people in this land. He had n6 reasons 
to disbelieve the testimony given to him yesterday that 
many young men were insulted because they wore Khad- 
dar caps and dress. The keepers of the peace in India 
had torn Khaddar vests from young men and burned them. 
The authorities in Malabar had invented new measures of 
humiliation if they had not gone one better than those 
in the Punjab. (Madras Mail, dated 16th Stptember 1921.) 



APPENDIX XI. 



Details of Suspension of 
Sentence and Fine. 



YIDE CHAPTER III. 

In chapter III the details of conviction, suspension 
and fines have been given up to the end of October. 1922. 

Information up to 3 1st March 1923 is given below. 

1. Number of persons whose sentence was suspended 

under suspension scheme ... 12.842 

2. Total amount of fine inflicted ... Rs. 12,04,232 

* 

3. Total amount collected ... ., 2193,821 

4. Number of persons pending trial ... „ 221. 

Information as to the number of persons convicte< 
up to 31-3-'2S of offences committed in connection witL 
the rebellion is not available, but the number of prisoners 
in jail on 19th April 1923, excluding those transported to 
the Andamans was 7900.